Pollination of lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) by the honeybee was studied in Israel's two commercial cultivars, `Mauritius' and `Floridian'. Pollination rate, which was determined in a mixed `Mauritius' and `Floridian' plot, followed a consistent pattern: it was low at the first male (M,) `Mauritius' bloom and reached a high value only when the pseudohermaphroditic (M2) `Mauritius' bloom started. Pollen density on bees collected from `Mauritius' inflorescences was very low during the M, bloom and increased to very high values during the M2 bloom. These results indicate that the `Mauritius' M, bloom does not play an important role as a source of pollen for pollination. Pronounced, significant, and consistent differences in nectar volume per flower and sugar concentration in the nectar were found between M1, M2, and female (F) `Mauritius' flowers. Values were very high in F flowers, medium in M2 flowers, and low in M, flowers. Accordingly, the density of bees found on inflorescences was high during the F bloom, intermediate during the M2 bloom, and low during the M1 bloom. The positive correlation between bee density and sugar concentration in the nectar was highly significant for M2 and F `Mauritius' flowers. The nectar contained three sugars: glucose (43%), fructose (39%), and sucrose (18 %). This ratio was the same in nectar from M1, M2, and F `Mauritius' flowers.
Raphael A. Stern and Shmuel Gazit
Raphael A. Stern and Shmuel Gazit
The lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) has two types of pollen-releasing flowers—M1 and M2. We compared the morphology and viability of these two pollen types, mainly for the two commercial cultivars in Israel: `Mauritius' and `Floridian'. Observation by scanning electron microscope did not reveal any consistent morphological differences between the two pollen types. However, M2 pollen was found to have a consistent and significant advantage over M1 pollen in in vitro germination tests. M2 pollen from `Mauritius', `Floridian', `No Mai Chee', `Wai Chee', and `Early Large Red' had a much higher germination rate at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 °C than M1 pollen from those same cultivars. The optimal incubation temperature for in vitro pollen germination was 30 °C for M2 pollen of all five cultivars studied; adequate germination rates were also found at 35 and 25 °C. The optimal temperature for M1 pollen germination was also 30 °C for `Mauritius' and `No Mai Chee', but was not well defined for the other three cultivars. No pronounced advantage of M2 pollen-tube growth could be discerned 48 h after hand pollination. However, final fruit set was consistently and significantly higher after hand pollination with M2 pollen, relative to M1 pollen. Hot (32/27 °C) and warm (27/22 °C) regimes during flower development had a pronounced detrimental effect on pollen viability compared to a cool (22/17 °C) regime. `Floridian' was much more susceptible than `Mauritius' in this respect.
Doron Schneider, Raphael A. Stern, and Martin Goldway
Apple (Malus domestica) has a gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system. Consequently, fertilization is achieved by cross-pollination with a compatible pollinator. Compatibility is governed by a multiallelic S locus. Cultivars are fully compatible when both of their S-loci differ and are semi compatible when one locus is identical and the other differs. In a previous study we found that the fruit set and yield of the apple cultivar `Topred' was reduced when it was pollinated by a semi compatible cultivar. To examine if this occurrence is a general feature in apples grown under suboptimal conditions, three additional cultivars, `Golden Delicious', `Granny Smith' and `Royal Gala', were studied as pollen recipients of semi and fully compatible pollinators. Based on PCR analysis of the S-RNase allele, it was determined that the pollination rate of the semi compatible was significantly lower than that of the fully compatible pollinator in all cases. This was reflected by the lower fruit set and seed set of `Golden Delicious' and `Royal Gala', but not of `Granny Smith'. In hand pollination experiments, where pollen was in excess, no difference was found between the semi and fully compatible pollinators in all three cases. These results indicate that the low yield, conferred by semi compatible pollinators, is due to insufficient cross-pollination (and not to cultivar characteristics). Thus, low yields due to semi compatibility may be avoided by appropriate honeybee management that will increase pollination. Still, under suboptimal conditions, for growth and pollination, full compatibility is preferable.
Raphael A. Stern, Daniel Stern, Moshe Harpaz, and Shmuel Gazit
Application of TP as Tipimon® or TPA as Maxim® at the young fruitlet stage significantly increased yield in three lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.) cultivars: `Mauritius', `Floridian', and `Kaimana'. Application of TP followed by TPA a week later increased yield more than did either substance alone. In all experiments, TPA increased fruit size and weight, relative to both controls and TP-treated trees. The increased yield did not prevent the increase in fruit size. Use of sprays of TPA may be an effective way of satisfying the market demand for large lychee fruit. Chemical names used: 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxypropionic acid (TP); 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyloxyacetic acid (TPA).
Chemda Degani, Ruth El-Batsri, Raphael A. Stern, and Shmuel Gazit
Fruits produced in two commercial lychee (litchi chinensis Sonn.) orchards consisting of adjacent blocks of `Floridian' and `Mauritius' were analyzed for pollen parentage by phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) isozyme system. 'Mauritius' and `Floridian' were found to possess distinguishable homozygous isozyme phenotypes in PGI, thus allowing the unequivocal identification of their progenies as originating from self- or cross-pollination. The rates of hybrids produced in the two orchards were 69% and 87% for `Floridian' and 17% and 65% for `Mauritius'. In both cvs a significant correlation was found between pollen parent and the weights of fruits and seeds. Fruits originating from cross-pollination were heavier and contained heavier seeds than selfed fruits. The most pronounced effect of the pollen parent on seed weight was found in `Floridian, which appears to exhibit inbreeding depression.
Gal Sapir, Raphael A. Stern, Martin Goldway, and Sharoni Shafir
Japanese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.), a species of the Rosaceae family, carries the S-RNase-mediated gametophytic self-incompatibility system. Self-incompatibility is manifested if the S-haplotype of the pollen is carried also by the pollinated flower. Thus, for fertilization to occur, the cultivars have to be genetically compatible. The haplotype is conferred by an S-locus, which contains the style-specific expressed S-RNase and the pollen-specific expressed F-box genes (SFB). Since both the S-RNase and the SFB genes are multiallelic and are characteristic of each of the S-haplotypes, they are ideal markers for molecular S-typing. In this work, seven SFBs, from eight japanese plum cultivars, were cloned and sequenced. Five of the alleles were published recently and two SFBg and SFBk are new. The physical linkage of SFBb and SFBc to their adjacent S-RNase was determined; it is 544 base pairs (bp) and 404 bp for the Sb and Sc loci, respectively.