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  • Author or Editor: R.O. Pacumbaba Jr. x
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Culture media YMMBSA (yeast extract, malt extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), YVMBSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar, agar), and YVMSA (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, sucrose, agar) and broths YVMBS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar), YVMS (yeast extract, V-8 vegetable juice, sucrose), and MVBS (multigrain oatmeal V-8 vegetable juice brown sugar) were formulated and demonstrated to be excellent media and broths for growing shiitake mushrooms [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] in the laboratory. When a portion of the unopened basidiocarp or mushroom fruit (cap or stipe) was isolated on PSA (potato sucrose agar) medium and transferred to the formulated culture media, the mycelia significantly ramified to flocculent (wooly or fluffy) growth texture within 20 days. For the first time, shiitake mushroom basidiocarps have been induced on the formulated plated media within 20 to 35 days. In tissue culture vessels, mycelia grew well on substrates composed of maple, oak, maple + oak, maple + vermiculite, and oak + vermiculite which had been amended with the broths YVMBS, YVMS or MVBS, attaining spawn texture in 25 to 30 days. Shiitake basidiocarps appeared on the tissue vessels, Magenta GA-7, in 2.6 to 4.1 months. Shiitake mushroom strains, LE1, LE2, LE6, LE7, and LE8, attained flocculent mycelia on the formulated culture media YMMBSA, YVMBSA, and YVMSA in 20 days. Growing the same shiitake strains in the bigger tissue culture vessels, P4928, containing hardwood sawdust amended with broth YVMBS or YVMS or MVBS resulted in significantly larger volume of mycelia growth and spawn texture was attained in 35 to 45 days. Shiitake basidiocarp initials or pins were induced on the spawn blocks in 3 to 5 days after the blocks were squeezed off from the sides of the tissue culture vessels. These results are the first that the formulated culture media considerably enhanced the growing of shiitake mushroom mycelia, production of spawn, and basidiocarps in less time (2.6 to 4.1 months after inoculation) in the laboratory. Basidiocarp productions of shiitake mushroom on amended hardwood sawdust may have an excellent economic potential commercially. It takes 1 to 2 years for basidiocarps to appear in shiitake spawn inoculated logs.

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Seven strains of shiitake mushroom [Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler] produced spawn in culture vessels containing hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS (yeast extract, multigrain oatmeal, brown sugar) broth within 35 to 45 days after mycelia inoculations. Under greenhouse conditions, shiitake basidiocarps (mushroom fruit) appeared from 1 to 3 months after spawn inoculations of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth. The shiitake mushroom strains LE2, LE1, LE6, and LE5 had 10.4, 7.3, 2.5, and 1.6 times more fresh harvested basidiocarps, respectively, on the amended hardwood sawdust compared to the controls. The amount of basidiocarps produced by the shiitake strains LE3, LE4, and LE7 was the same on both hardwood sawdust treatments. The basidiocarps of LE1, LE2, LE3, LE4, and LE5 were averaged 5 inches (12.7 cm) in diameter, however, the basidiocarps of LE6 and LE7 were averaging only 2 inches (5.1 cm) in diameter. The only pests of the shiitake basidiocarps in the greenhouse were slugs, but they were easily controlled by applying table salt. The start up cost of inoculating 100 shiitake spawn blocks on hardwood sawdust on one bench in the greenhouse was $77. The start up cost of inoculating shiitake spawn on 100 logs was $1,329.75. In 1 year, shiitake strains LE1, LE2, LE5, and LE6 produced 19.5, 20.2, 7.9, and 4.5 lb (8.8, 9.2, 3.6, and 2.0 kg), respectively, of harvested fresh basidiocarps on amended hardwood sawdust in the greenhouse. The mushrooms retail for $3.20 to $4.20/lb ($7.05 to $9.26/kg). The use of the hardwood sawdust amended with YVMBS broth for shiitake production in the greenhouse has considerable economic potential for shiitake mushroom growers.

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