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  • Author or Editor: R.F. Polomski x
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Shading (92%) of `Redchief Delicious' apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees for 10-day periods from 10 to 20, 15 to 25, 20 to 30, and 25 to 35 days after full bloom (DAFB) caused greater fruit abscission than shading from 5 to 15, 30 to 40, 35 to 45, or 47 to 57 DAFB. Fruit 8 to 33 mm in diameter (10 to 30 DAFB) were very sensitive to 10 days of shade, even though fruit sizes of 6 to 12 mm are considered the most sensitive to chemical thinners. In a second test, shading for 3 days caused fruit thinning; 5 days of shade in the periods 18 to 23, 23 to 28, and 28 to 33 DAFB caused greater thinning than 11 to 16 or 33 to 38 DAFB. Shading reduced photosynthesis (Pn) to about one-third that of noncovered trees. Terbacil (50 mg·liter-1) + X-77 surfactant (1250 mg·liter-1) applied with a hand-pump sprayer 5, 10, or 15 DAFB greatly reduced fruit set and caused some leaf yellowing, particularly in the earliest treatments. Terbacil reduced Pn by more than 90% at 72 hours after application. Shoot growth of trees defruited by shade or terbacil was equivalent to defruited or deblossomed trees; ethephon (1500 mg·liter-1) inhibited tree growth and defruited trees. No terbacil residues were dectected in fruit at harvest from applications made 5, 15, 20, 25, or 30 DAFB. Eleven of 12 photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides were also found to thin `Redchief Delicious' apple trees. Shading caused more thinning than terbacil at the later applications, which may reflect poorer absorption and/or lesser photosynthetic inhibition than when terbacil was applied to older leaves.

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Two interactive pruning televideoconferences were produced, each comprised of videotaped segments and in-studio pruning demonstrations. In the first televised conference, viewers received step-by-step instructions for pruning four small and tree fruits. Twelve woody ornamentals were pruned in the second conference. The “how-to-prune” segments were performed by Extension personnel and videotaped by University Electronic and Photographic Services. Each of the 2-hour conferences was broadcast live from a classroom television studio with a total of 30 in-studio participants and 178 county extension agents, Master Gardeners, and residents at downlink sites statewide. A toll-free number was available throughout the conference to encourage two-way communication. These televideoconferences culminated in the creation of a library of “how to prune” videotapes, which are available to county agents, Master Gardeners, or residents. Also, several of these segments were aired on C.U.E. Magazine, a monthly, half-hour Extension-sponsored cable television program, and on Making It Grow!, a bimonthly, hour-long Clemson Extension program that is broadcast on SC-Educational Television.

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