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  • Author or Editor: R.E. Stall x
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Abstract

Juice made from carrots stored at 20, 25, 30 or 35°C for 0,2,4 or 8 days contained negligible amounts of nitrite when sampled immediately. The bacterial populations were higher in juice made from carrots stored for longer periods and at the higher temperatures. Juices incubated at 35°C for 4 hours accumulated nitrite in amounts that tended to correspond to the bacterial populations in the fresh juices.

Open Access

Abstract

The nitrite level of carrot juice at 20°C increased rapidly for several hours when bacterial levels were above 106 cells per ml of juice. When juice was held at 20°C, nitrite cone began to decline after 16 hours, although there was no decrease in bacterial population. No increase in nitrite occurred when bacterial growth was prevented by holding the juice at 5°C or by adding potassium dehydroacetate. However, nitrite was produced at 5°C when the bacterial level was raised to 108 cells per ml.

Open Access

Abstract

Strategies for reducing bacterially induced frost damage to tender plants were examined. Introduction of the competitive bacterium, Erwinia herbicola M232A (not active in ice nucleation) did not lower the temperature at which freeze injury of tomato shoots occurred. Streptomycin was effective in reducing freeze damage of tomato shoots only when mixed with the Pseudomonas syringae suspension prior to plant inoculation. Spectinomycin, another aminoglycoside, was effective in reducing frost damage to tomato plants due to P. syringae. Bacteria present intercellularly (within the plant) may play a significant role in bacterial ice nucleation.

Open Access

A single lime application of 5.4 t/ha per 20 cm increment of soil to a depth of 60 cm controlled bacterial wilt (Psendomonas solanacearum E. Smith) up to 2 years in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) growing in a naturally infested soil. `Sunny' with 64% disease incidence, was the most susceptible, `Capitan' (20%) was intermediate, and `Caraibo' (5%) and `Hawaii 7997' (2%) were the least susceptible. Incorporation of lime 40 to 60 cm deep reduced bacterial wilt incidence in 'Capitan' by 75%, and 60% in `Sunny'. The number of bacteria in the soil was not affected by lime treatment. Soil pH and total Caincreased linearly with time and with depth of lime incorporation. Bacterial wilt control in `Sunny' and `Capitan' was associated with an increase in pH. Liming to 40 or 60 cm generally increased leaf Ca and decreased Mn, Zn, and Cu. `Hawaii 7997' contained significantly higher concentrations of Ca, Mg, and K, and lower Cu compared to 'Sunny'. `Hawaii 7997' produced significantly higher yields than the other cultivars. Deep lime incorporation increased fruit weight of `Sunny' by 184% and 'Capitan' by 79% as compared with 0 lime.

Free access

Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) accessions were tested for hypersensitivity and rated for resistance following field inoculation with tomato race 3 (T3) of the bacterial spot pathogen Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye (Xcv) in 1992 and 1993. Hawaii 7981, PI 126932, PI 128216, and selections of the latter two expressed hypersensitivity. Hawaii 7981, only tested in the field in 1993, was nearly symptomless and developed significantly less disease than any other accession. PI 128216 had a level of disease similar to susceptible `Solar Set' when tested in 1993. However, a selection from it (PI 126218-S) was significantly more resistant than `Solar Set' in both years. Although PI 126932 had a level of disease similar to `Solar Set' in both years, a selection from it (PI 126932-1-2) was significantly more resistant than `Solar Set' in 1993. Other accessions without hypersensitive responses but more resistant than `Solar Set' for two seasons were PI 114490, PI 126428, PI 340905-S, and PI 155372. Hawaii 7975 was significantly more resistant than `Solar Set' in the one season it was tested.

Free access

Abstract

Pseudomonas syringae van Hall, an ice nucleation active (INA) bacterium, increased frost susceptibility of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) when sprayed on leaves prior to low temperature stress. Tomato and soybean plants inoculated with INA bacteria were nucleated and frozen at −4° and −5°C respectively. Control plants that were free of INA bacteria supercooled and survived to −8°. A threshold INA bacterial concentration of about 4 × 105 cells/ml was necessary for ice nucleation. Ice nucleating active bacteria preconditioned at 2° showed a marked increase in efficiency of ice nucleation. Preconditioned INA bacteria had ice nucleation temperatures 5° higher than INA bacteria held at 21°.

Open Access

Four greenhouse leaf inoculation methods for screening Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L. and hybrids) for resistance to Xanthomonas campestris pv. pruni (Smith) Dye were compared for repeatability, ability to differentiate among plant genotype responses, and correlations with field ratings. Clonally propagated trees were inoculated artificially in a greenhouse by immersing leaves in 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum (DIP), rubbing the adaxial side of leaves with a slurry of 2.5 × 108 cfu/ml inoculum and Carborundum powder (CARB), infiltrating leaves with 5 × 105 cfu/ml inoculum using a needle-less syringe (INFS), and infiltrating with 5 × 106 cfu/ml inoculum (INF6). No greenhouse method was superior in all assessment categories. The CARB method was most repeatable (t = 0.78) but had a low Spearman's correlation (rs = 0.29), indicating that greenhouse rankings did not correspond closely with field rankings. The INF6 method was unsuitable because it did not differentiate between plant genotypes. The DIP method appeared most suitable, having moderate repeatability (t = 0.46) for four observations per leaf and moderate Spearman's correlation with field performance (rs = 0.56). The INF5 method may be appropriate for identifying bacterial spot resistance that is associated with resistance in the leaf mesophyll.

Free access

Thirty-two tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) or L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. accessions were inoculated with race T2 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) in a field experiment at Wooster, Ohio, in 1995. Plants from accessions which segregated for race T2 resistance in greenhouse tests were selected and these are designated by hyphenated extensions below. The eight most resistant accessions from 1995 and PI 262173 were retested in 1996. Lycopersicon esculentum accession PI 114490-1-1 had virtually no Xcv symptoms either year. Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium accessions LA 442-1-Bk and PI 128216-T2 expressed a high level of resistance in 1995, but only partial resistance in 1996. Accessions with partial resistance for both seasons were PI 79532-S1, PI 155372-S1, PI 126428, PI 271385, PI 195002, PI 262173, Hawaii 7998, and Hawaii 7983. PI 79532-S1 is a L. pimpinellifolium accession and the remaining seven are L. esculentum. Twenty accessions tested in 1995 for T2 plus 10 other accessions were also tested for race T1 resistance in Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brazil, in 1993. Hawaii 7983, PI 155372-S1, PI 114490, PI 114490-S1, and PI 262173 had greater resistance to T1 than the susceptible control, `Solar Set'. Comparisons with earlier experiments, in which accessions were inoculated with race T1 or T3, indicated that the most consistent source of resistance to all three races was PI 114490 or selections derived from it.

Free access

Thirty-three tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) or L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. accessions were inoculated with race T2 of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) in a field experiment at Wooster, Ohio, in Summer 1995. These included accessions selected for race T2 resistance in greenhouse tests in Florida, and accessions from Hawaii, Brazil, and Bulgaria. One L. esculentum (PI 114490-1-1) and three L. pimpinellifolium (PI 340905-S1, PI 128216-T2, and LA 442-1-BK) accessions had no Xcv symptoms. This is the first report of resistance to Xcv race T2. Partial resistance was found in PI 271385, PI 79532-S1, PI 155372-S1, PI 195002, and PI 126428. Most of the 33 genotypes were tested for race T1 resistance in Presidente Prudente, Sao Paulo, Brazil in summer 1993. Hawaii 7983, PI 155372-S1, PI 114490, PI 114490-S1, and PI 262173 had greater resistance to T1 than the susceptible control `Solar Set'. Comparisons with earlier experiments in which accessions were inoculated with race T1 or T3 indicated that the most consistent source of resistance to all three races was PI 114490 or selections from it.

Free access