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Calvin Chong and R.A. Cline

Four deciduous ornamental shrubs {`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid.), `Flaviramea' dogwood (Cornus sericea L.), `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia ×intermedia Zab.), and `Variegata' weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC.]} were grown in trickle-irrigated containers with 100% pine bark (control) or with 10 other pine-bark-amended media, including two sources [Noranda Forest (NF) and Quebec and Ontario (QO)] of raw paper mill sludge mixed at 15 % or 30% (by volume). All species grew equally well or better in the sludge-amended media than in the control or other nonsludge media. Cotoneaster and forsythia grew more in NF sludge media than in corresponding QO media due primarily to the greater quantities of N and other nutrients released from the NF sludge.

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R. A. Cline and O. A. Bradt

Abstract

The responses of ‘Concord’ grape vines (Vitis labrusca L.) to 3 potassium fertilizer sources (KCl, K2SO4, and KNO3) used at 2 rates were compared. Fertilizers were applied for 10 years to vines on a poorly drained Jeddo clay loam soil. Performance on a moderately well-drained Oneida clay loam as influenced by KCl and K2SO4 levels was also studied. There was no reduction in yield, fruit quality, or vine vigor with high rates of KCl. KCl and K2SO4 were equally effective in increasing petiole K but the response was slow under Jeddo clay loam conditions. Yield, vigor, and petiole K levels were less with vines receiving KNO3 than with those receiving other sources of K, or with the non-treated control vines. KNO3 was undesirable as a source of K. Petiole K was higher in grape vines growing on Onedia clay loam than on Jeddo clay loam; in addition, they responded more quickly to applied K irrespective of source. There was an indication of a yield response one year to high levels of KCl but no such response occurred with K2SO4. No toxic response to high rates of KCl was detected at either location.

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D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline

Benzyladenine (BA) applied postbloom at 125 and 250 mg·liter-1 thinned `Empire' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees below commercial crop levels but thinned less than thidiazuron (THI) at 62 and 125 mg·liter-1. Ethephon (ETH) applied up to 250 mg·liter-1 reduced fruit set only slightly. When BA was tank-mixed with ETH, thinning was the same as with BA alone. Although THI thinned more, BA resulted in a larger increase in fruit weight. Seed development was nearly eliminated by THI, but was unaffected by either BA or ETH. Thinner effects on foliar nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load but not shoot growth. The effects of BA and ETH on fruit-flesh nutrient concentrations were similar to their effects on foliar nutrient concentrations. Although THI thinned strongly and produced large changes in foliar nutrient concentrations and seed count, THI resulted in virtually no changes in fruit-flesh nutrient concentrations. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)-1 H-purine-6-amine (benzyladenine); 2-chlorophosphonic acid (ethephon); N-phenyl-N'-1,2,3-thiadiazol-5-ylurea (thidiazuron).

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D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline

Beginning in 1982, daminozide (DZ) was applied annually for 5 years to whole, 5-year-old `Northern Spy'/MM.106 (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees: a) shortly after bloom, b) together with ethephon (ETH) 6 to 7 weeks after bloom, or c) after harvest. Controls were unsprayed. One-half of the trees receiving each growth regulator treatment were summer-pruned after terminal-bud formation each year. Postharvest DZ reduced shoot numbers, mean shoot length, trunk enlargement, and fruit size, but had little or no effect on bloom, fruit set, or yield. Postbloom DZ, summer DZ plus ETH, and summer-pruning reduced vegetative growth and time required for dormant-pruning, but only postbloom DZ and summer DZ plus ETH increased spur density in the tree. Postbloom DZ and summer DZ plus ETH increased both flowering and cropping in 3 of the 5 years, with little effect on fruit set. Fruit size was reduced only in years when cropping was enhanced. Total yields (1982-86) were increased 34% and 36% by postbloom DZ and summer DZ plus ETH, respectively. Summer-pruning had no effect on fruit size in any year, but reduced yields in 1984 and 1986. Year-to-year fluctuation in yield was unaffected by any treatment. Growth-control treatments had no direct effect on foliar or fruit macronutrient concentrations. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon).

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D.C. Elfving and R.A. Cline

Postbloom applications of benzyladenine (BA) thinned young fruitlets of mature `Empire' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) as well as or better than NAA or carbaryl (CB). BA increased fruit weight more effectively than either NAA or CB. Promalin (PR) was less effective than BA for both thinning and fruit-weight increase. In 1990, both BA and PR reduced fruit set up to 29 days after full bloom, but PR showed less thinning activity. BA and NAA produced independent and additive thinning responses when tank-mixed. Effects of all thinners on foliar mineral-nutrient concentrations were associated with changes in fruit load. BA increased return bloom as much or more than NAA or CB. PR did not affect return bloom. Chemical names used: N -(phenylmethyl)-1 H -purine-6-amine [benzyladenine (BA)]; BA plus gibberellins A, and A, [Promalin (PR)]; 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1-naphthalenyl methylcarbamate [carbaryl (CB)].

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D.C. Elfving, E.C. Lougheed, and R.A. Cline

A midsummer foliar daminozide (DZ) application (750 mg a.i./liter) to `Macspur McIntosh'/M.7 apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) reduced preharvest drop and retarded flesh firmness loss and starch hydrolysis when tested at harvest; DZ also reduced fruit ethylene production at harvest and after 19 weeks of storage at 0.5C. Root pruning at full bloom (May) resulted in increased soluble solids concentration (SSC) and firmer flesh and less starch hydrolysis at harvest, but not consistently each year. Full-bloom root pruning reduced the incidence of stem-cavity browning and brown core, but again not each year. Full-bloom root pruning did not influence ethylene evolution at harvest but did reduce post-storage ethylene evolution in two of three seasons. Full-bloom root pruning generally was less effective than DZ in altering fruit behavior, while root pruning later than full bloom had virtually no effect. Trunk scoring or ringing increased SSC and retarded loss of flesh firmness before harvest and following storage, but had little effect on starch hydrolysis. Scoring or ringing decreased incidence of some disorders and reduced post-storage ethylene evolution, although these treatments had little effect on ethylene production at harvest. Trunk scoring influenced some fruit characteristics more strongly than DZ. Fruit size was not affected by any treatment in any year. Chemical name used: butanedioic acid mono (2,2 -dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide).

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Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, and D.L. Rinker

Four deciduous ornamental shrubs [`Coral Beauty' cotoneaster (Cotoneaster dammeri C.K. Schneid); Tartarian dogwood (Cornus alba L.); `Lynwood' forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia Zab.); `Variegata' weigela (Weigela florida Bunge A.D.C.)] were grown in trickle-fertigated containers. There were eight media consisting of 25% or 50% sphagnum peat or composted pine bark, 25% sand, and the remainder one of two sources of spent mushroom compost; four media with 509″ peat or bark mixed with 50% spent mushroom compost; and a control medium of 10070 pine bark. Initially, higher than desirable salt levels in all compost-amended media were leached quickly (within 2 weeks of planting) and not detrimental to the species tested. Unlike cotoneaster, which showed no difference in growth (shoot dry weight) due to medium, dogwood, forsythia, and weigela grew significantly better in all compost-amended media than in the control. Growth of these three species was 20% greater in peat-based than in bark-based, compost-amended media. Dogwood and forsythia grew slightly more (+8%) with spent mushroom compost based primarily on straw-bedded horse manure than with one based on a blend of straw-bedded horse manure, wheat straw, and hay. The addition of sand (25%) to a mixture of 50% peat or bark and 25 % spent compost produced a medium with minimal compaction.

Open access

J.M. Bodnar, J.T.A. Proctor, J.E. Laing, and R.A. Cline

Abstract

Leaves of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) containing up to 8 mines per leaf produced by the spotted tentiform leafminer (STLM), Phyllonorycter blancardella (Fabr.), were analyzed for N, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn. Nutrient imbalance due to leafmining depended upon leaf type, location of the leaf, and the relative concentration of an element in the leaf types. Leafmining had the greatest effect on interior spur leaves, and particularly on concentration reduction of Ca and Mg which are major constituents of the insect hemolymph.

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H.J. Hruska, G.R. Cline, A.F. Silvernail, and K. Kaul

Research began in 1999 to examine sustainable production of bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) using conservation tillage and legume winter cover crops. Tillage treatments included conventional tillage, strip-tillage, and no-tillage, and winter covers consisted of hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth), winter rye (Secale cereale L.), and a vetch/rye biculture. Pepper yields following the rye winter cover crop were significantly reduced if inorganic N fertilizer was not supplied. However, following vetch, yields of peppers receiving no additional N were similar to yields obtained in treatments receiving the recommended rate of inorganic N fertilizer. Thus, vetch supplied sufficient N to peppers in terms of yields. Pepper yields following the biculture cover crop were intermediate between those obtained following vetch and rye. When weeds were controlled manually, pepper yields following biculture cover crops were similar among the three tillage treatments, indicating that no-tillage and strip-tillage could be used successfully if weeds were controlled. With no-tillage, yields were reduced without weed control but the reduction was less if twice the amount of residual cover crop surface mulch was used. Without manual weed control, pepper yields obtained using strip-tillage were reduced regardless of metolachlor herbicide application. It was concluded that a vetch winter cover crop could satisfy N requirements of peppers and that effective chemical or mechanical weed control methods need to be developed in order to grow peppers successfully using no-tillage or strip-tillage.

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D.C. Elfving, E.C. Lougheed, C.L. Chu, and R.A. Cline

Foliar daminozide (DZ) applications to `McIntosh' apple trees (Malus domestics Borkh.) increased fruit color, reduced preharvest drop, resulted in greater firmness at harvest and after air storage, delayed starch hydrolysis, and reduced fruit ethylene production at harvest and after storage. Foliar paclobutrazol (PBZ) reduced preharvest drop and flesh firmness loss if applied within 5 weeks after full bloom (WAFB). Later applications had no effect. PBZ did not influence the progress of starch hydrolysis or ethylene production at harvest but reduced poststorage ethylene production in one season. Stem-cavity browning and brown core were increased by PBZ applied at 5 and 9 WAFB in 1987. In 1988, fruit soluble solids content (SSC) was reduced by a double application of PBZ and by uniconazole (UCZ). UCZ had little effect on `McIntosh' fruit other than the reduction in SSC. PBZ applications were less consistent in their effects than DZ. Chemical names used: butanedioic acid mono(2,2-dimethylhydrazide) (daminozide); ß-[(4-chlorophenyl) methyl]-α- -(l,l-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol); ß-[(4-chlorophenyl)methylene]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (uniconazole).