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Abstract

Kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson, var. deliciosa] were propagated successfully by hardwood cuttings with bottom heat. Rooting improved in response to increasing bottom heat up to 24°C. Temperatures >24° damaged cuttings. Optimal results were obtained with bottom heat placed in a cold tunnel. In the heated greenhouse, rooting was unsatisfactory. NAA was the most effective auxin in promoting rooting, whereas IBA did not show appreciable effects. Chemical names used: 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA); 1H-indole-3-butyric acid (IBA).

Open Access

The usefulness of isozyme banding patterns as genetic markers in kiwifruit [Actinidia deliciosa (A. Chev.) C.F. Liang et A.R. Ferguson] was investigated using starch gel electrophoresis. Fifty-four entries putatively belonging to seven female and two male kiwifruit cultivars were examined for 13 enzyme systems (AAT, ACO, GDH, G6PDH, IDH, MDH, ME, MNR, NDH, 6PGD, PGI, PGM, and SKDH). Four enzyme systems, ACO, MDH, NDH, and SKDH, showed identical banding patterns in all clones surveyed. Of the remaining enzymes, AAT, PGI, and PGM had the best discriminating power. Six enzyme systems (GDH, G6PDH, IDH, ME, MNR, and 6PGD), though showing polymorphic banding patterns, were poorly resolved. All the New Zealand cultivars were uniquely identified by the simultaneous comparison of the AAT, PGI, and PGM zymograms. Some enzyme systems were also polymorphic among plants within the same cultivar, thus proving the heterogeneity of kiwifruit material introduced into Europe in the early 1970s.

Free access

The aim of the experiment was to define the wind and the bees effect on kiwifrut pollination. Experiment was carried out for two years in an adult kiwifruit orchard, with a ratio between staminate (cv Matua) and pistillate (cv Hayward) vines of 1:7. Four different pollination treatments were tested on kiwifruit. Bees effectiveness was evaluated on both open pollination (OP-Bees) or net-isolated vines conditions (IV-Bees). The results obtained were compared with those achieved on net-isolated vines without bees in (IV-Wind) and on hand-pollinated vines (HP). Four rows (80 vines) were net-isolated and 14 uniform vines per treatment were choosen to collect productive data. In the IV-Wind treatment traps were used to capture insects present inside the nets. Wind speed was detected inside and outside the nets. Data showed that the net isolation system did not consistently modify wind speed and no insects were founds in the traps. As far as productive data best results were obtained on HP vines. Bee-pollinated vines always reached higher yield and average fruit weight than wind-pollinated vines. However no statistical differences were detected between fruit weight of OP-Bees and IV-Wind vines treatments. The results showed that in general bees represent a more efficient pollination agent than wind, even if the health of the bees and the position of the hives in the orchard have to be carefully considered to achieve best results.

Free access

Nine simple-sequence-repeat (SSR) primer pairs were assayed in 35 Spanish and Italian olive cultivars of commercial interest. All microsatellites were polymorphic, showing 5 to 13 alleles per locus (7.5 alleles per locus on average). The frequency of each alleles was generally low, with most of the alleles present at one or two cultivars. Heterozigosity ranged from 0.15 to 0.95; the discrimination power (PD) ranged from 0.30 to 0.93 (mean 0.79). The set of microsatellites analyzed discriminated all cultivars investigated. The combination of only three SSR primer pairs—UDO99-009+UDO99-043+UDO99-14—made possible the identification of all cultivars included in the study. Cluster analysis did not find differences between Spanish and Italian cultivars, but most of the cultivars from southern and central Spain grouped together. Hence, microsatellites markers are recommended for olive fingerprinting to generate a database for olive cultivar identification.

Free access