No domestic issue since the depression of the 1930‘s has generated so much concern and emotion as “pollution. ” Like it or not, we as horticulturists are being swept along in an accelerating tide of public opinion against anything which may seem to add another gram of contamination to our earthly environment. In the public mind, pollution and pesticides have become synonymous. That is, pesticides are environmental poisons regardless of form, use or purpose. This unfortunate fear has been very effectively promoted by certain special interest groups who believe in strict protection and preservation of the environment, but only in accordance with their viewpoint.
No one knows when mechanization of fruit harvest began in the United States. It is documented, however, that machine patents were approved for a fruit gatherer in 1899 (9), a mechanical tree shaker in 1927 (1) and a collecting unit similar to today’s models in 1931 (24).
R. Paul Larsen was born December 1, 1926 in Orem, Utah. Paul grew up on a general crop, dairy and fruit farm. He received his BS degree in Horticulture from Utah State University in 1950; MS in Horticulture from Kansas State University in 1951 and PhD in Horticulture from Michigan State University in 1955. He served one year in the Merchant Marines during World War II and served in the armed forces from 1951-1953. Dr. Larsen joined the faculty at Michigan State University as an Assistant Professor of Horticulture in 1955; was promoted to Associate Professor in 1959 and Professor in 1965. In 1968 he accepted the position of Superintendent and Horticulturist at the Tree Fruit Research Center, Washington State University, Wenatchee, Washington and currently serves in that capacity.
In a very large measure the location and profitability of the fruit crops grown in this country are determined by cold and the consequences thereof. Horticultural history is filled with the tragic results of cold damage to fruit plants and their crops. All horticultural producing areas have been affected by various freezes at one time or another.
From colonial times to the present, America has prized education as the provider of individual opportunity, as well as our national progress. The value of practical education was delineated clearly with the passage of the Land-grant “Morrill Act” by the U.S. Congress, signed by Abraham Lincoln in 1862. The Land-grant Act provided grants of federal land to every state that agreed to establish at least one college to teach agriculture and the mechanic arts along with other scientific and classical subjects. This and subsequent legislation to support research and extension developed the “trilogy of American ingenuity”—the blended roles of teaching, research, and public service that form both the mission and strength of America's land-grant universities.
If we expect to receive support for our various endeavors we must convince those from whom that support must come that it is merited. This convincing can come only through understandable communications to the various segments of our support base which I divide into 5 categories: Ourselves - that is, our professional colleagues; Our administrators - university, federal or corporate; Government officials - elected and appointed, state and federal, also administrators within the political system (heads of budget bureaus and program administrators); Our constituents - the limited public segment who supposedly directly benefit from our endeavors, such as fruit growers, vegetable producers, florists, canners, etc; and The general public - those not directly connected with our profession but who benefit from it, including all consumers.
The senescence of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) flower petals is associated with increased synthesis of the phytohormone ethylene. This ethylene serves to initiate and regulate the processes of programmed cell death. We are using molecular approaches to study the regulation of ethylene biosynthesis in various floral organs during development and senescence of flowers. We have isolated and cloned mRNAs which encode the ethylene biosynthetic pathway enzymes s-adenosylmethionine (SAM) synthetase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase and the ethylene forming enzyme (EFE) from carnation flower petals. These cDNAs have been used as molecular probes to determine the steady-state mRNA levels of these transcripts in senescing flowers. The increase in ethylene associated with petal senescence is accompanied by a dramatic increase in the abundance of transcripts for both ACC synthase and EFE. In striking contrast, the level of SAM synthetase mRNA decreases significantly with the onset of petal senescence. Genomic DNA Southern blots reveal both ACC synthase and EFE are encoded by multigene families. We have recently isolated several genomic clones from carnation which represent different ACC synthase genes. The structure and organization of these gene will be presented.
Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) treated with (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon) to facilitate harvesting, were low in soluble solids in 1972, but not in 1973. Bruising, pitting and torn stem attachments were attributable to picking method rather than ethephon treatment.