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Layering is a common commercial method of propagating plant material, particularly plants such as currants and gooseberries, which reproduce naturally in this manner. European nurserymen have used layering extensively for the propagation of ornamental schrubs and trees (5). Mound or stool layering (stooling) is a method which involves cutting a plant back to the ground during the dormant season and mounding soil or other media around the base of the newly developing shoots to encourage roots to form on them (1, 2). Stooling is the most common method of propagating clonal rootstocks (4) especially for material, such as some East Mailing, Malling-Merton and Malus robusta apple stocks that are not always easily rooted as cuttings.

Open Access

One hundred twenty-eight field samples of 25 potato stem sections were analyzed for detecting bacterial ring rot (BRR). Samples containing more than 105, between 105 and 104, and <104 immunofluorescing BRR cells per milliliter of sample, detected using immunofluorescence-antibody staining with MAb9A1, were used to compare the efficiency of two other detection methods. Samples were screened with a digoxigenin-labeled DNA probe (Bh1 2, 0.6 kbp) detected by chemioluminescence on nylon membrane. Samples also were screened with a PCR test using primers derived from the sequence of the Bh12 probe. DNA probe tests on these three bacterial concentrations showed a detection efficiency of 100%, 76.8%, and 8.0%, respectively, whereas detection efficiencies of 100%, 100%, and 84.5% were obtained with PCR tests. Almost all positive samples gave the expected 403 bases ethidium-bromide-stained band when the amplified products were analyzed on 1.4% agarose gel. Thus, the PCR test was a sensitive detection method for screening bacterial ring rot of potato.

Free access

The effects of various nonfumigant planting-hole treatments on growth and yield of apple (Malus domestics Borkh.) trees were measured during the first 3 years after planting. Eight orchards diagnosed as having a replant problem were monitored. First-year shoot growth, the number of blossoms in the second year (inmost orchards), and first-year trunk cross-sectional area increment (TCAI) in 50% of test orchards were increased by monoammonium phosphate (MAP) fertilizer+ peat, MAP+ mancozeb, or MAP + peat + a bacterial antagonist. By the end of year 3, TCAI generally was not affected by treatments, but treatments resulted in more blossoms by the third season in two of seven orchards that blossomed in the second season. Cumulative yield after 3 years increased significantly in only three orchards, with the best treatment, MAP+ peat, resulting in cost recovery in only one orchard. Inadequate K or Cu nutrition may have reduced growth in some of the orchards, which were characterized by a wide range in yields, independent of planting-hole treatment.

Free access

Yellow crookneck `Dixie' hybrid summer squash, Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopeop Alef., was evaluated at E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Alabama. Summer squash was grown in single rows spaced 6 feet apart. Plants were seeded 18 inches apart within 20-foot row plots. Treatments were: 1) black plastic mulch (BPM), 2) yellow painted plastic mulch (YPM), 3) white plastic mulch (WPM), 4) bare soil (BS), 5) aluminum painted plastic mulch (APM) and 6) bare soil with Diazinon insecticide (BSI). Aphid traps caught more aphids in BS or BPM plots than those from APM or YPM plots. The onset of mosaic disease incidence of squash infected with the two viruses identified as zucchini yellow mosaic and cucumber mosaic was delayed by as much as three weeks when compared to BSI or BS. Summer squash planted in APM, WPM, YPM and BPM produced 96%, 98%, 75% and 21%, respectively, more total squash yield than that produced on bare soil (control). A higher percentage of green squash (virus infected) was produced from plants grown over BPM (72%), BSI (68%), BS (59%), YPM (57%) or WPM (57%) than from APM (39%)

Free access