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  • Author or Editor: R. E. Hardenburg x
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Abstract

Adding 250 ppm benomyl or 500 ppm thiabendazole (TBZ) to contaminated dump-tank water in apple-packing plants reduced subsequent decay of fruit packed in polyethylene bags. In 9 tests with bagged apples (Malus domestica) stored in master containers for 3 months at 0°C plus 2 weeks at 21°C, decay averaged 6.0% in control lots, 3.9% with TBZ, and 1.8% with benomyl. Bags containing at least 1 decayed apple after this holding period averaged 44% for control lots, 27% with TBZ, and 19% with benomyl. However, 3 months at 0°C plus 2 weeks at 21°C was too long to store prepackaged apples in cartons, because of the high percentage of bags with decay. The fungicides also reduced decay during shorter storage of 2 weeks at 4.4°C plus 2 weeks at 21°C. Combination fungicide and scald-inhibitor treatments before bagging were effective. Without scald inhibitors about 33% of the apples scalded, while with scald inhibitors, alone or combined with fungicides, 10% scalded.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Stayman’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) dipped in 4% CaC12 were firmer after 5–6 months storage in air at 0°C and developed less senescent breakdown than untreated fruit. Use of the thickener Keltrol with CaC12 or vacuum infiltrating (VI) CaC12 resulted in the firmest fruit after storage and the highest flesh Ca levels. ‘Stayman’ stored 5 or 6 months in CA at 0°C were 1.5 kg firmer than air-stored fruit. Dipping apples in CaC12 prior to CA storage provided little additional benefit. Liquid concentrate formulations of diphenylamine (DPA) and ethoxyquin used alone or in combination with 4% CaC12 gave excellent scald control on ‘Stayman’ stored 5 or 6 months at 0° + 6 days at 20°. However, the same chemicals gave poor scald control for ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ picked early to midseason. The antioxidants BHT and BHA evaluated as postharvest dips at 2,000 ppm were less effective than DPA or ethoxyquin in controlling scald on ‘Stayman’. ‘Delicious’ apples were not significantly firmer after 6 months storage in air at 0°C when dipped in 3% CaC12 alone or with Keltrol, or when CaC12 was VI. When CaC12 was contaminated with Penicillium expansum spores, VI of the solution greatly increased decay of both ‘Delicious’ and ‘Stayman’.

Open Access

Abstract

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were examined after 0, 2, 4, and 6 months’ storage and after simulated retail display for 1 and 2 weeks at 4.4°, 13°, and 21°C. Apples displayed or marketed at 4.4° for 1 week developed less decay and scald than apples held at 21°, and were crisper, brighter, and about 0.55 kg (1.2 lb.) firmer. Apples softened much faster at 21° soon after harvest than after 4 or 6 months’ storage at 0°C. The sonic firmness index decreased significantly with both storage time and with increases in display temp. Weight losses from bulk apples during 1 week of display at 4.4°, 13°, and 21° averaged 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8%, respectively. The greatest loss of acidity was also at the warmest display temp. Apples displayed at 13° were of a quality and condition intermediate to those held at 4.4° and 21°. Apples stored in CA for 6 months and then displayed 2 weeks at 21° were firmer and more acid, and had a lower respiration rate than those stored in air. Refrigerated display of ‘Delicious’ apples is strongly recommended to retard deterioration and preserve their good quality and shelf life.

Open Access

Abstract

Benomyl and thiabendazole (TBZ), at concn of 1,000 ppm, were compatible with commercial scald inhibitors (2,700 ppm ethoxyquin or 2,000 ppm diphenylamine). No injury was observed on ‘ Delicious’ or ‘Stayman’ apples given combined treatments and stored 5 months at 0°C plus 6 or 7 days at 21°C. Effectiveness of fungicide and scald inhibitor was not altered when combined.

Both benomyl and TBZ used as 10-15 sec dip treatments at 500 ppm controlled decay due to blue mold (Penicillium expansum) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) at puncture wounds in inoculated apples. They were less effective in controlling decay at bruises unless suspensions were heated in a range of 29°-45°C (84°-l 13°F) and used as a 2-min dip. Unheated benomyl was more effective than unheated TBZ in reducing blue mold at bruises. TBZ was less effective in controlling decay at punctures when treatment was delayed 24 hr after inoculation. TBZ added to water contaminated with blue mold spores, as in a dump tank, controlled decay at skin punctures but not at bruises during subsequent storage. Neither benomyl nor TBZ controlled Alternaria rot, which often developed at punctures when blue and gray mold rot were controlled.

Open Access

Abstract

Six carnation cultivars from Colorado and from California were cut as ¾- to 1-inch buds and shipped during each of the spring, summer, fall, and winter seasons. After arrival, usually 2 days after cutting, loose buds opened in 1–2 days at 75° F in a preservative; tighter buds sometimes required 3–4 days. A low relative humidity of 42–45% was as satisfactory as 80–85% during the few days required for opening buds. Vase life at 70° was 13–15 days when buds were opened on arrival and held continuously in a preservative, 12–14 days when stored 1 week at 40° before opening, and 7–14 days when stored 3 weeks at 32°–33°. Bud-cut carnations held in water after shipment had a vase life of 4–5 days. Some lots and cultivars were injured after 3 weeks at 32°–33° and never opened well.

Three preservatives were tested and found satisfactory for opening buds after shipment or after shipment plus storage. Use of Cornell solution (5% sucrose, 200 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline sulfate and 50 ppm silver acetate) for opening and display usually produced the largest blooms with the longest life. Two percent “Ever-bloom” and a solution containing 3% sucrose, 400 ppm 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate and 300 ppm “Alar” were other satisfactory preservatives for use with bud-cut carnations after shipment.

Open Access

Abstract

The longevity and quality of flowers experimentally shipped from California to Maryland by refrigerated trucks for 4–5 days were comparable with or better than simulated air-shipped flowers when properly handled. Flowers shipped by air are usually not refrigerated in transit. Best results with ‘White Sim’ carnations (Dianthus caryophyllus L.), ‘Albatross’ standard chrysanthemums (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat) and ‘Cara Mia’ roses (Rosa hybrida L.) were obtained when flowers were pretreated after harvest with a chemical solution for 16 hours, precooled prior to shipment and shipped in insulated boxes. Preshipment pulsing of carnations and chrysanthemums increased longevity and bloom diameter. Pulsing of ‘Cara Mia’ roses extended longevity and prevented “bent neck.” Chrysanthemums and roses benefited from ice in the box even with good refrigeration but carnations did not. Carnations and chrysanthemums cut at a tight bud stage suffered much less than open blooms from heat stress conditions during handling of flowers.

Open Access