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  • Author or Editor: R. E. Byers x
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The addition of a 70 second superior oil to Sevin (carbaryl; 1-naphthyl-N-methyl-carbamate) sprays enhanced the thinning effect on both spur ‘Golden Delicious’ and spur ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). Vydate (oxamyl; methyl N’, N’-dimethyl-N [(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-l-thiooxamimidate) gave excellent thinning of spur ‘Golden Delicious’ without phytotoxic symptoms but increased fruit lenticel russeting. The addition of another oil ICI 411 F (17% surfactants) or 2,4,7,9-tetramethyl-5-decyn4,7 diol ethylene oxide adduct 65% by weight (Surfynol 465) to Sevin increased the thinning effect of Sevin on spur ‘Golden Delicious’. The Surfynol 465-Sevin combination also caused more russeting than most other Sevin combinations. The addition of Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K-30) and Sorbitol (Sorbo) did not alter the thinning effect of Sevin.

Open Access
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Abstract

Commercially prepared pelletized baits of 3-[3-(4‘bromo[1,1-biphenyl]-4-y1-1, 2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Brodifacoum, BFC, ICI 581, Talon), 2-[(p-chlorophenyl)phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione (Chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), and 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (Diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) resulted in 93%, 86%, and 74% control, respectively, of meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, when broadcast in 2 late fall applications at a 21 day interval. A single hand placed treatment of these baits performed as well or better than the 2 broadcast treatments.

Open Access
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Abstract

Most pesticide recommendations for apple orchards have been based on a specified rate per hectare. These recommendations are based on dilute applications of materials in 3740 liters·ha−1 (400 gallons/acre) to trees in a “standard” orchard, which are about 6.1 m (20 ft) high, 7.0 m (23 ft) wide, and 10.7 m (35 ft) between rows (3, 6). Most orchards today do not conform to this standard, and many pesticides are applied at concentrations other than dilute.

Open Access
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Abstract

Pine vole, Microtus pinetorum LeConte, activity was reduced to very low levels with [(chloro-4-phenyl)-l-phenyl-1] acetyl-2-dioxo-l-3 indane (Chlorophacinone, CPN) ground cover spray at .2 kg/ha (.2 lb. per acre) and a CPN wax-grain pellet applied in two applications of 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb. per acre) each. Inadequate control of voles was obtained with traditional zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) treated apple and oat hand baits, CPN treated cracked com, CPN wax blocks, CPN apple baits, and 2-diphenylacetyl-l,3-indandone (Diphacinone, DPN) meal pellets. Ground cover sprays of ethyl 4-(methylthio)-m-tolyl isopropylphosphor-amdate (Nemacur) or methyl N′ N′-dimethyl-N-[(methylcarbamoyl)oxy]-1-thiooxamimidate (Vydate) also did not give adequate vole control.

Open Access
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Abstract

A rapid method for assessing the presence of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) in experimental plots was based on an apple activity test. This test was easily adapted to surveying the effect of grower applied treatments.

Chlorophacinone (CPN) was superior to Endrin ground sprays for pine vole control in an orchard where Endrin had been used annually for over 10 years. Low levels of CPN at 0.112, 0.056, and 0.028 kg/ha (0.1, 0.5, 0.025 lb./acre) did not give adequate control of pine voles, and 0.224 kg/ha (0.2 lb/acre) appeared to be the lowest possible dosage level for control.

Open Access
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Abstract

Commercially formulated baits of 3-[3-4’-bromo[1,1’-biphenyl]-4-yl) l,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (brodifacoum, BFC, Volak), 2-[(p-chlorophenyl) phenylacetyl]-1,3-indandione (chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), and 2-diphenylacetyl-1,2-indandione (diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) hand placed at 5.6 kg/ha (5 lb./acre), 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre), and 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre), respectively, were effective pine vole control agents. Hand-placed baits were more effective under adverse weather conditions than broadcast baits. Cellophane packaged BFC bait placed under site covers gave excellent control and greatly protected bait from soil moisture and spoilage. Broadcast treatments of anticoagulant baits gave good control at the following rates: 1 application of BFC at 16.8 kg/ha (15 lb./acre), 3-[3-(4’-bromo [1,1’-biphenyl]-4-y)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylpropyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (bromodialone, BDL, Maki) at 16.8 kg/ha (15 lb./acre), and 1 application CPN at 22.4 kg/ha (20 lb./acre), or 2 applications of DPN at 22.4 kg/ha (20 lb./acre) each.

Open Access
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Abstract

Stems of 3 peach, 3 apple, and 11 apple rootstock cultivars were compared to ‘Golden Delicious’ apple stems for differences in susceptibility to attack by pine voles, (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) in cage-trials. ‘Ambergem’, ‘Glohaven’ and ‘Elberta’ peach and ‘Halford’ peach seedling stems were significantly less damaged than ‘Golden Delicious’ apple. No differences in susceptibility were detected among the apple scion and rootstock cultivars. In an interplanted peach and apple orchard apple trees were more severly damaged by voles than peach trees.

Open Access
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Abstract

Hand placement of commercially prepared baits of 2-[(p-chlorophenyl) phenylacetyl]-l,3-indandione (Chlorophacinone, CPN, Rozol), 3-[3-(4’-bromo[1,l’-biphenyl]-4-y)-3-hydroxy-1-phenylpropyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Bromadiolone, LM-637) and 3-[3-(4-bromo[l,l’-biphenyl]-4-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthalenyl]-4-hydroxy-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one (Brofacoum, BFC, ICI 581) were found to be very effective in controlling the pine vole, Microtus pinetorum LeConte, in a single 11.2 kg/ha (10 lb./acre) application. Cubed apple baits treated with BFC or 1-(3-pyridylmethyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl) urea (RH 787, Vacor) were also effective. The 2-diphenylacetyl-1,3-indandione (Diphacinone, DPN, Ramik-Brown) prepared bait did not perform as well as the other anticoagulants in these experiments. Prepared meal baits of RH 787 gave excellent results in laboratory trials; however this preparation failed to control pine voles in field plots.

Open Access
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Abstract

Beta-chloroethyl-methyl-bis-benzyloxy-silane (CGA 15281) was applied to 6 Eastern U.S. grown peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars. Thinning response varied considerably with cultivar, timing, concentration and year. Unpredictable and commercially unacceptable leaf abscission occurred with most cultivars during the three-year period. Adequate thinning was achieved without excessive leaf abscission (10% or less) with only one treatment on 3 cultivars (‘Redhaven’, ‘Loring’, and ‘Sunhigh’) during the 3-year period. Reproducibility between years was not good. Unpruned trees or long 2-year-old limbs lost a greater portion of fruit at the base of shoots and on the interior of the trees than trees pruned to a uniform shoot length. The thinning response to CGA 17856 (an analogue of CGA 15281) was compared to the same rate of CGA 15281 on 5 cultivars. A tendency to greater leaf abscission was observed with CGA 17856.

Open Access
Authors: and

Abstract

A change in orchard culture caused a significant reduction in activity of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum Le Conte). Cultivations in May, July, and November were not as effective as 2 cultivations plus 2 residual herbicide treatments (July and November). A single cultivation in November caused a small but significant reduction in vole activity but the effect was short lived. A heavy annual residual herbicide treatment in July caused a small but significant reduction in vole activity. No cultural treatment resulted in adequate control by December of 3 consecutive years and toxic hand placed baits were required each year to reduce populations.

Open Access