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  • Author or Editor: R. E. Anderson x
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Abstract

Peaches and nectarines [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] ripened at 18° to 20°C after storage in air for 9 weeks at 0° developed severe internal breakdown and were of very poor quality. Comparable fruit intermittently warmed (IW) for 2 days in air at 18° to 20° during storage at 0° in CA (1% O2 + 5% CO2) and then ripened generally had little breakdown and retained good quality for about 20 weeks. Less mature fruit (6.8 kg at harvest) were more acid after storage than were more mature fruit (5.5 kg at harvest). Fruit dipped in benomyl at each IW treatment had no less decay than those dipped only before storage but they had a better internal appearance and were more acid. Fruit stored in CA after 2 weeks delay in 0° air generally were poorer in quality than those stored in CA within 2 or 3 days of harvest.

Open Access
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Abstract

Peaches and nectarines (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) ripened after storage for 4 weeks at 0°C retained a significantly better internal appearance and had less internal breakdown than those ripened after storage at 5°. Shifting fruit to 5° after storage for 1 or 2 weeks at 0° resulted in fruit with very severe internal breakdown. Breakdown in these fruit was as severe as in fruit stored continually at 5°. However, fruit shifted to 0° after storage for 1 or 2 weeks at 5° developed significantly less breakdown than those shifted from 0° to 5°. Fruit that were warmed (2 days at about 18.3°) during low temperature storage developed significantly less internal breakdown than comparable fruit that were not warmed. Peaches and nectarines that were warmed during storage also tended to have lower respiration rates than those that were not warmed. Acidity was significantly higher after storage in fruit stored at 0° than it was in fruit stored at 5° and acidity tended to remain higher in warmed than in nonwarmed fruit.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Stayman’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) dipped in 4% CaC12 were firmer after 5–6 months storage in air at 0°C and developed less senescent breakdown than untreated fruit. Use of the thickener Keltrol with CaC12 or vacuum infiltrating (VI) CaC12 resulted in the firmest fruit after storage and the highest flesh Ca levels. ‘Stayman’ stored 5 or 6 months in CA at 0°C were 1.5 kg firmer than air-stored fruit. Dipping apples in CaC12 prior to CA storage provided little additional benefit. Liquid concentrate formulations of diphenylamine (DPA) and ethoxyquin used alone or in combination with 4% CaC12 gave excellent scald control on ‘Stayman’ stored 5 or 6 months at 0° + 6 days at 20°. However, the same chemicals gave poor scald control for ‘Starkrimson Delicious’ picked early to midseason. The antioxidants BHT and BHA evaluated as postharvest dips at 2,000 ppm were less effective than DPA or ethoxyquin in controlling scald on ‘Stayman’. ‘Delicious’ apples were not significantly firmer after 6 months storage in air at 0°C when dipped in 3% CaC12 alone or with Keltrol, or when CaC12 was VI. When CaC12 was contaminated with Penicillium expansum spores, VI of the solution greatly increased decay of both ‘Delicious’ and ‘Stayman’.

Open Access

Abstract

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were examined after 0, 2, 4, and 6 months’ storage and after simulated retail display for 1 and 2 weeks at 4.4°, 13°, and 21°C. Apples displayed or marketed at 4.4° for 1 week developed less decay and scald than apples held at 21°, and were crisper, brighter, and about 0.55 kg (1.2 lb.) firmer. Apples softened much faster at 21° soon after harvest than after 4 or 6 months’ storage at 0°C. The sonic firmness index decreased significantly with both storage time and with increases in display temp. Weight losses from bulk apples during 1 week of display at 4.4°, 13°, and 21° averaged 0.2, 0.4, and 1.8%, respectively. The greatest loss of acidity was also at the warmest display temp. Apples displayed at 13° were of a quality and condition intermediate to those held at 4.4° and 21°. Apples stored in CA for 6 months and then displayed 2 weeks at 21° were firmer and more acid, and had a lower respiration rate than those stored in air. Refrigerated display of ‘Delicious’ apples is strongly recommended to retard deterioration and preserve their good quality and shelf life.

Open Access

Abstract

Taste panelists preferred ‘Stayman Winesap’ apples stored for 9 months in a controlled atmosphere (CA) to those stored in air. Apples stored in CA followed by storage in air were generally intermediate in quality (taste, firmness, and acidity) between fruit stored in CA and those stored in air. When the fruit were stored for 9 months, the longer they had been in CA before shifting them to air, the more closely they approached the quality and metabolic state of fruit stored 9 months in CA

Open Access

Abstract

Three peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] and one nectarine [P. persica var. Nectarina (Ait.) Maxim.] cultivars were stored in a controlled atmosphere (CA) or air at 0°C for 9 weeks. At 3- or 6-weeks intervals fruits from certain of these storage atmospheres were shifted to air at 18.3°C for 2 days and then returned to CA or air at 0°C. Fruits stored in CA retained better quality and had lower respiration rates than those stored in air. Within a given storage atmosphere fruit quality was often even better and respiration (of CA stored fruit) usually was further reduced when the temperature had been raised to 18.3° for 2 days during the 0° storage. Skin browning frequently developed during ripening at 18.3°. This disorder and decay remain serious problems for successful long-term storage.

Open Access

Abstract

Decay of peaches [Prunus persica (L.) Batch] and nectarines [P. persica var nectarina (Ait.) Maxim.] held 6 days at 18.3°C was considerably higher on fruits previously stored 6 weeks in air or in 1% O2 + 5% CO2 (CA) at 0° than on those freshly harvested and held 6 days at 18.3°. Monilinia fructicola (Wint.) Honey) caused most of the decay of freshly harvested fruits, whereas Monillinia, Botrytis, Penicillium, and Alternaria species caused decay of stored fruits. Treatment in 46°C water containing 100 ppm benomyl (methyl-1-(butylcarbamoyl)-2-benzimidazole carbamate) effectively controlled decay during storage at 0° and during ripening at 18.3° without injuring the fruits. Treatment in 46° water alone partially controlled decay. Treatment in 52° water controlled decay of peaches during storage but not during ripening. This treatment severely injured peaches but not nectarines.

Open Access

Abstract

Fruits of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) stored in a controlled atmosphere (CA) and intermittently warmed (IW) after 3 weeks of storage at 0°C retained better quality than did those stored in air with no warming (NW) through 6 weeks storage. Large plastic bags used as CA chambers maintained an average level of 1.4% O2 and 5.0% CO2 throughout the test. An inexpensive U tube manometer calibrated for flow rates of 3.5 to 25 liter/hr controlled the gas atmospheres within the plastic CA chambers.

Open Access

Abstract

Tomato fruits, initially mature-green and held at 55° F for 6 weeks, kept significantly better in 3% O2 and zero CO2 than in air. Three or 5% CO2 combined with the low-O2 atmosphere did not materially affect the amount of decay, and sometimes resulted in CO2 injury. Mature-green tomatoes ripened to a full red when held in air for 6 weeks at 55°. When stored in an atmosphere containing 3% O2, tomatoes ripened to pink. Red color development was further retarded in a low-O2 atmosphere supplemented with 3 or 5% CO2.

Exposing mature-green tomatoes to air for 16 hours midway in a 6-week holding period in low-O2 did not affect the decay or color of the fruits while in storage as compared to a continuous holding in low-O2. After ripening, however, the tomatoes from the interrupted treatment did not keep as well as those from the continuous treatment.

Mature-green tomatoes stored at CO2 levels of 3 or 5% tended to be more acid after ripening than tomatoes held in CO2-free atmospheres.

Open Access

Petioles were gathered at bloomtime in four trials, one each of `Chardonnay and `Zinfadel' and two of `Cabernet Sauvignon' over 2 years, 1993 and 1994. In each trial, scions were grafted onto 12 to 14 rootstocks. Petioles were analyzed for NO3-nitrogen, NH4-N, K, P, and Mg. NO3-N levels differed among rootstocks by as much as 16-fold (126 to 2064 μg·g–1), NH4-N by as much as 4-fold (253 to 1-28 μg·g–1), K, P, and Mg by about 3-fold (9.7 to 30.6 mg·g–1, 1.8 to 6.3 mg·g–1, and 2.9 to 7.5 mg·g–1, respectively). `Freedom' had the highest levels of NO3-N. `Salt Creek' had moderate levels of NO3-N, but had the highest levels of NH4-N. The rootstock 420A Mgt was consistently low in NO3-N, NH4-N, and K. Freedom was among the highest in K content. The rootstock 44-53 Malègue' had high levels of K and low Mg. Implications for vineyard fertilization programs will be discussed.

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