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  • Author or Editor: R. D. Way x
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Abstract

An interactive computer program, written in Fortran as implemented on a microcomputer, was designed to do rank analysis. The program minimizes the time involvement in the determination of rank analyses and thus facilitates the study of rank responses. Although the system still included manual typing of the raw ranks into the microcomputer, the calculations of rank totals and subsequent rank analysis to determine significant differences among the ranks was performed much faster than an analogous manual handling of the same data.

Open Access

Abstract

Several color sports of ‘Delicious’ and ‘Rome Beauty’ were irradiated with gamma rays as growing trees or as dormant scions. Four sports of ‘Delicious’ and 3 of ‘Rome’ showed radiation-induced reversions in fruit color pattern from blushed to striped or to less red color. Not all cultivars showed spontaneous reversions. Most of the anthocyanin-containing cells producing the red color of the sports occurred in the hypodermis, which was derived from layer II of the apical meristem. The color sports were hypothesized to be periclinal chimeras with a mutation favoring increased anthocyanin in layer II or, by layer reduplication, in both layers II and III. The former chimeras would be more likely to revert than the latter.

Open Access

Abstract

Chromosome counts derived from sectioned buds of 137 apple clones are reported. Of these 128 were determined to be diploid (2n = 34) and 9 to be triploid (2n = 51).

Open Access

Abstract

Fruit finish, productivity, and tree size of 5 ‘Golden Delicious’ subclones (Malus domestica Borkh.) were compared during a 4-year period. Russeting damage greater than permitted for U.S. Fancy grade was observed in 20% of ‘Smoothee’ fruits, 55% of ‘Golden Delicious’ and 95% of each of 3 spur-type strains. No differences were observed in cumulative yield, trunk cross-sectional area, tree spread, tree height or efficiency between ‘Smoothee’ and ‘Golden Delicious’. Fruits of spur-type trees matured about 1 week later than nonspur type.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Geneva Early’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a red, early ripening apple introduced from the Geneva apple breeding program.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Early Cortland’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) is a red apple similar to ‘Cortland’, but ripening 1 month earlier, introduced from the Geneva apple-breeding program.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Liberty,’ which was tested under the number NY55140-19 is a good quality red apple that can be grown without fungicidal sprays in New York State (3). It is highly resistant to Venturia inaequalis (Cke.) Wint., apple scab, and to Gymnosporangium juniperivirginianae (Schw.), cedar apple rust and resistant to Podosphaera leucotricha (E. & E) Salm, apple powdery mildew, and Erwinia amylovora (Burrill) Bergey et al, fire blight.

Open Access

Abstract

Pale green lethal seedlings of apple (Malus spp.) are characterized by yellowish green color, poor growth of lateral roots, of epicotyl and of leaves, early cessation of apical meristematic activity, and death of the whole plant in about 1 month. Lethal seedlings occur in about 25% of the progeny of 2 heterozygous diploid parents. By this test we determined the homozygosity of 107 diploids (LL) and the heterozygosity of 97 diploids (LI). Among tetraploids 12 were quadriplex (LLLL) and 8 were probably duplex (LLll) or triplex (LLLl), but the expected ratios were not obtained.

Open Access

Abstract

The pronounced bitterness found in some apple wines, such as from ‘Cortland’ but not ‘Mcintosh’ apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), is produced during the later stages of fermentation. Bitterness in grape wines is also related to cultivar and some grape parents show a tendency to yield progeny whose fruit makes bitter wine.

Open Access

Abstract

‘Kristin’ is a new, mid-season, productive, large, black, high-quality sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.). It is similar to ‘Schmidt’, but trees are more winter-hardy more heavily cropping, and fruits are larger. It has performed especially well in tests in Norway, Montana, and New York.

Open Access