Timing of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) for sales is complex because the date of Easter and the number of leaves formed on plants before flower bud initiation vary from year to year. A process control chart was developed that uses a leaf unfolding rate model of Easter lily to control development rate towards flowering. The technique allows observed and target leaf count to be tracked on a graph and compared visually over time. The optimum leaf unfolding rate and average temperature can be read directly from the chart without the need for mathematical calculation. The approach provides an intuitive method for transferring quantitative models to growers and can be applied to other management problem areas.
A graphical control chart was developed to monitor leaf count of Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum Thunb.) and make temperature recommendations based on predictions of a leaf unfolding rate (LUR) model. The graph allows observed and target leaf count to be compared visually over time. Timing of the visible bud stage, when flower buds are visible externally on the plant, is important to time flowering for the Easter sales period. The optimum LUR and average daily temperature required to achieve a target visible bud date can be read directly from the chart. The approach provides an intuitive method for transferring quantitative models to growers.
A methodology based on process-control approaches used in industrial production is introduced to control the height of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima L.). Graphical control charts of actual vs. target process data are intuitive and easy to use, rapidly identify trends, and provide a guideline to growers. Target reference values in the poinsettia height control chart accommodate the biological and industrial constraints of a stemelongation model and market specifications, respectively. A control algorithm (proportional-derivative control) provides a link between the control chart and a knowledge-based or expert computer system. A knowledge-based system can be used to encapsulate research information and production expertise and provide management recommendations to growers.
In the paper, Influence of Photoperiod and Light Quality on Stolon Formation and Flowering of Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) Jacques by R. D. Heins and H. F. Wilkins (J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 103(5):687-689. 1978), the authors names were inadvertently omitted from the table of contents.
Differences in cyathia abscission of poinsettias (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.) ‘Annette Hegg Dark Red’ (Dark Red), ‘Annette Hegg Lady’ (Lady), ‘Annette Hegg Brilliant Diamond’ (Brilliant), ‘Gutbier V-14 Glory’ (V-14), and ‘Mikkel Triumph’ were evaluated chronologically based both on the number of days after the start of short days and on the number of days after anthesis. Seventy days after the start of short days, ‘V-14’ had the least abscission of the tested cultivars in the greenhouse or postharvest environment, while ‘Lady’ had the greatest abscission. In contrast, 7 days after anthesis, ‘V-14’ had the greatest abscission in the postharvest environment while ‘Brilliant’ and ‘Dark Red’ had the least abscission. The difference in ‘V-14’ ranking between evaluation method was due to ‘V-14’ reaching anthesis 7-10 days later than the other cultivars. Abscission was greater in the postharvest environment than in the greenhouse, probably due to the reduced photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) levels in the postharvest environment (5.1 mol·d−1·m−2 PPF in the greenhouse compared to 0.29 mol·d−1·m−2 PPF in the postharvest environment).
Plants of Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. cv. Bright Golden Anne irradiated as a day continuation or night interruption with light from cool white fluorescent tubes wrapped with red cellophane (red) produced more cuttings than plants irradiated with incandescent light. There were no significant differences in cutting production when plants were irradiated just prior to dawn. Increased cutting production from plants irradiated with red light was attributed to increased axillary bud activity, especially at the middle nodal position. When shoots were pruned to 4 or 8 nodes, the apical axillary bud produced the maximum number of cuttings and the basal produced the minimum, irrespective of light quality or time span of irradiation.
Alstroemeria ‘Regina’ plants produced more vegetative shoots when the soil temperature alternated between 15°C (40 days) and 21° (20 days) as compared to a constant 15° soil temperature. However, a higher percentage of the shoots flowered from plants grown at the constant 15° soil temperature. Short days (8 hours light) inhibited flowering irrespective of soil temperature. Plants given a long-day treatment by exposing them to a night break with incandescent light flowered 6 weeks earlier than plants grown under normal day photoperiods during winter and spring and produced 30% more flowering stems. Treatments favoring flower development produced shorter flowering stems with fewer leaves. Maximum flower production resulted from plants grown at a constant 15° soil temperature and irradiated with incandescent lights as a night interruption.
Low irradiance levels, high temperatures, and water stress all promoted premature cyathia abscission in poinsettia ‘Annette Hegg Dark Red’ (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.). Abscission was greater in plants placed under 75% shade at 16°C night temperature (NT) than on plants placed under normal daylight (ND) at 16° or 21° NT. Water stress (0.6 MPa) promoted abscission on plants grown at an 18° NT and ND but did not promote abscission on plants grown at 16° NT and ND or on under 75% shade (13° to 21° NT). As plant density increased, transmission of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) through the bracts to the leaf canopy decreased while cyathia abscission increased concomitantly. More than 90% of the PAR above the bracts was absorbed or reflected 5 cm below the bracts on 20 cm tall plants spaced at 65 or more plants m-2. Reducing natural irradiation 75% by shading leaves of poinsettia promoted cyathia abscission, whereas removing immature bracts decreased abscission. Leaf removal on plants with intact bracts promoted abscission to a degree that 100% of the cyathia abscised prior to anthesis, whereas bract removal on plants with intact leaves resulted in only 23% abscission of the cyathia 25 days after first anthesis. Measurements of nonsoluble carbohydrate showed a significant increase in leaf carbohydrate on plants with bracts removed while carbohydrate decreased in leaves of plants with bracts intact. Carbohydrate depletion appears to be the primary factor responsible for premature cyathia abscission in poinsettia.
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. ‘Bright Golden Anne’ plants were grown under 15 combinations of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), day temperature, and night temperature in a central composite design. Time to flower was a function of both irradiance and the interaction between day and night temperature. The surface response to temperature was bowl shaped with delayed development as temperatures were either increased or decreased from the optimum combinations. High temperature delay was compensated for in part by increased PPF. Shoot length increased linearly as day temperature increased; final shoot length first decreased, then increased with increasing night temperature. The response surface appeared as a rising valley with the longest shoot lengths at high day temperatures. Total flower area per plant increased as PPF increased or as night temperature decreased. For any PPF and night temperature, maximum flower area occurred near 20°C. At a constant PPF, the response surface appeared as a rising ridge with maximum flower area at low night temperature.