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Qingrong Sun, Yinping Shi, Qiangsheng Wang and Hongyan Sun

Laiyang dwarf cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl. Var. Laiyang dwary cherry) is an important dwarf type of Chinese cherry. It is both directly used for production and used as rootstock of sweet cherry (P. avium L.). Material used in this study was Laiyang dwarf cherry seed, which is open-pollinated. The fruit surface is sterilized with 70% ethanol on sterile working table, the seed is removed from fruit, and embryo is taken out of cracking seed shell. Explants include whole embryo, embryo without cotyledons, and cotyledons. Basal media are MS and 1/4MS major elements, sugar 30 g·L–1, agar 5.5 g·L–1, adjusted pH 5.8. Hormone used included 6-BA,IBA and 2,4-D for a total eight treatments. Culture temperature was 25° ±2°C, and photoperiod was 14 h. Results show 1) the plant regeneration rate from cotyledons is highest, second is from embryo without cotyledons, lowest is from whole embryo; 2) when BA is in the range of 0.7 to 5 ppm, plant regeneration is higher at a high concentration than that at low concentration; 3) at the same concentration, plant regeneration rate on the medium supplemented with 2,4-D is higher than that on the medium supplemented with IBA; 4) plant regeneration rate is higher on the medium containing cytokinin and auxin is higher than that on the medium only containing cytokinin; and 5) plant regeneration rate of continuous light culture cotyledons is higher than that of first dark culture 2 weeks cotyledons. Effects of light and dark/hormone and explant type on plant regeneration rate is discussed.

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Qingrong Sun, Meijuan Sun, Hongyan Sun, Richard L. Bell, Linguang Li, Wei Zhang and Jihan Tao

The organogenesis potential is different among cultivars and must be optimized for individual genotype. Shoot organogenesis capacity from in vitro leaves and root organogenesis capacity of in vitro shoots in six clonal apple rootstock cultivars were compared. The shoot organogenesis capacity was highly genotype dependent. ‘GM256’ was found to be the most responsive genotype for shoot regeneration from leaf explants among the cultivars, showing high regeneration percentage on all tested media. The effects of basal medium composition and cytokinins on shoot regeneration were different depending on rootstock genotype. Optimum regeneration occurred on Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium for ‘71-3-150’, and optimum regeneration occurred on Quoirin and Lepoivre (QL) basal medium for ‘60-160’ and ‘ПБ’. Thidiazuron (TDZ) was more effective than 6-benzylaminopurine (BA) for Malus prunifolia (Y), whereas TDZ and BA were not significantly different for the other cultivars. All rootstock cultivars showed high root organogenic capacity. The percentage of rooting reached more than 90% and the mean root number per plantlet ranged from three to five. The optimum rooting medium was different for different rootstock cultivars. Optimum root organogenesis occurred on half-strength QL medium for ‘GM256’ and ‘Y’, and for ‘ПБ’ and ‘JM7’ on one-quarter-strength MS medium.

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Qiangsheng Wang, Yinping Shi, Qingrong Sun and Yongsheng Yin

In the 1980' s, a Bartlett pear giant fruit sport was found in Pingdu, Shandong. The characteristics of mutation are larger fruit, thicker branch, shorter internode and much more spur. By grafting propagation, the clones began to bear fruit in 1990, and maintain the characteristics of variable mother plant.

From microspore formation to blossom and spreading pollen, the cytohistological observation of sport flowering organs indicates: in every phase of pollen development, the size of florets, anthers and pollen grains are similar to CK; their pollen types both belong to tricolporat, pollen grains are nearly equal in size. This indicates that sport sporogenous tissue do not mutate. The observation of shoot apex sections showes: for CK, the cells of three histogenic layers range regularly; the size of cells, nuclei, and nucleoli among LI, LII, LIII are similar. For sport, the cells of LI, LII are no difference from CK, but in LIII and inner tissue, cells, nuclei, nucleoli all become larger clearly. This indicates LIII had mutated. So this sport is a 2–2–4 type chimera.

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Yinping Shi, Qiangsheng Wang, Jianming Yang, Congyi Sui and Qingrong Sun

To perform apple polyploid breeding the ways of inducing polyploidy pollen with temperature and chemicals were studied. Materials include 13 diploid cultivars: Red Chief, Dai Hong, Rose Red, Golden Delicious, Mollie's Delicious, Gala, Bella, Jonathan, Fuji, Qiu Kou Hong, and Yan Qing, OBIR-2T-47. Chemicals: Chloroform, N-nitroso-ethylurea. At the beginning of PMC meiosis, fruiting branching groups were covered with plastic bags to raise temperature or were treated with chemical. After covering, temperature during the day increased 2 °C, generally not lower than 0 °C. Whether branches received high temperature or chemicals treatment, polyploidy pollen was induced to produce. The pollen grain of CK is tricolporat, its polar view is triangular, and its diameter almost 40 μm, showing no difference in size. Rate of empty pollen grain is low. Pollen grains that were treated were different in size, and rate of empty pollen is high, part of pollen grains germinating colporat change into tetracolporat with a few polycolporat, its polar view is square, round, and oval. The diameter of large pollen grains was 45-48 μm, increased by 11-12%. Giant pollen grain are 50-68 μm, increased by 25%-70%. Rate of induction is different in different cultivars. For most cultivars, giant pollen grain is 0.3%-0.5%. Gala and OBIR-2T-47 were higher, reaching 2.5%-7%. Chemicals caused damage on cultivars. Delicious strains were easily damaged.