Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 11 items for

  • Author or Editor: Qing Wang x
Clear All Modify Search

Conventional crossbreeding remains an effective technique for chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramat.) breeding. However, there are always many problems when breeding chrysanthemum because of its complex genetic background, such as difficulty matching parents, selecting superior hybrid progenies, quantitatively describing certain target traits, and evaluating breeding results. A recent mathematical analysis method is an effective method for evaluating plant breeding progress. In this study, we used 505 multiflora chrysanthemum germplasm resources as test materials; we divided the flowering time into five groups using a grading analysis method, including extremely early group (genotypes that flowered when daylength was longer than 13.5 hours), early group (genotypes that flowered when daylength was 13.5–12.0 hours), medium group (genotypes that flowered when daylength was 12.0–11.0 hours), late group (genotypes that flowered when daylength was 11.0–10.0 hours), and extremely late group (genotypes that flowered when daylength was shorter than 10.0 hours). Moreover, the breeding objective was to breed early-flowering genotypes. Using 15 phenotypic characters as evaluation factors, 37 excellent genotypes, including four early-flowering genotypes, were screened out from the aforementioned resources according to an analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and weighting of the gray relational grade. We selected one early-flowering genotype and eight medium-flowering genotypes from these 37 genotypes and matched six hybridized combinations based on the genetic distance between genotypes calculated by the Q cluster analysis method. We used a comprehensive evaluation method combining AHP and the gray relational analysis (GRA) method for the evaluation of 367 progenies. Moreover, we screened out 52 superior hybrids, including 36 early-flowering hybrids. The results of this study demonstrate that the mathematical analysis method is an immensely effective method to breed new cultivars of early-flowering multiflora chrysanthemum. This study also provides an effective method to define and improve the flowering time of other cultivated plants.

Free access

Molecular markers were used to study the genetic diversity, structure, and relationship of Juglans L. with nine populations (five from Juglans regia L. and four from Juglans sigillata Dode) in central and southwestern China. A moderate level of genetic diversity was observed at the population level with the number of effect alleles per locus (A E) ranging from 1.75 to 3.35 (average 2.39) and the proportion of polymorphic loci (P) equaling 100.0%. The expected heterozygosity (H E) within populations ranged from 0.389 to 0.687, and the average was 0.525. The proportion of genetic variation presented among populations accounted for 18.6% of the total genetic diversity. The overall gene flow (N m) among populations equaled 1.10. The unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) clustering and the Mantel test showed that genetic distances among the nine populations are in a good agreement with their geographic distribution, supporting the viewpoint that J. regia and J. sigillata belong to one species. We suggest that the central area of the southwestern mountain regions of China could be considered as a priority for walnut genetic resource conservation.

Free access

Medical benefits derived from grape extracts and red wine have been recently documented. In these regards, fresh grapes were collected from six Italian table grape varieties grown at the Rutgers Fruit Research and Extension Center in Cream Ridge, N.J. These samples were analyzed for proanthocynidins (PACs) which are the nutraceutical compounds considered to be bioactive in grapes. Seeded red grapes, seedless red grapes, seeded purple grapes and seedless green table grapes were also purchased from a New Jersey supermarket and analyzed for PACs. An LC/ESI-MS analytical method under low CID level of 20% was used to quantitate the PACs. Separated proanthocynidins (PACs) were individually analyzed and determined by their molecular ion peaks under positive ion mode, and led to the identification of dozens of proanthocynidins (PAC). Using HPLC/ESI-MSD, the proanthocyanidin monomers, (+)-catechin (C), (-)-epicatechin (EC), (-)-catechin gallate (CG), and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) in these fresh grape samples were quantified under MRM mode. These identified catechins are the same phytochemicals that exist in green tea which is renowned for these same healthful components. This research revealed that the total concentration of PAC monomers in the six fresh table grape samples from New Jersey grown grapes ranged from 0.009% to 0.04%, which is much higher than that found in the four fresh table grape samples purchased from supermarket that contained concentrations from trace level to 0.005%. While the New Jersey grown grapes could not be directly compared to the supermarket grapes, this study provides a base-line data of expected PAC levels from standard supermarket grapes, and shows that these Italian grape varieties grown in New Jersey were rich in PACs.

Free access

Triploid loquat (2n = 3x = 51) has stronger growth vigor and larger leaves, flowers, and fruit compared with its diploid parental plant (2n = 2x = 34), but the effects of triploidization on the contents of flavonoids and phenolics in leaves and flowers, which are the most important antioxidant compounds for pharmacological applications, have not been reported. In this report, 58 triploid loquat genotypes and seven corresponding diploid parental cultivars were used to evaluate the effects of triploidization on the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics and the antioxidant activities of leaves and flower buds. The results showed that the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics and their corresponding antioxidant activities were higher in most of the triploid loquat genotypes than their diploid parents. The antioxidant activities of leaves and flower buds were significantly correlated with the total flavonoids and phenolics contents in both diploid loquat and triploid loquat. It could be inferred that triploidization could increase the contents of flavonoids and phenolics in leaves and flower buds of loquat. Notably, the contents of total flavonoids and phenolics of leaves in triploid genotype ‘H3/24’ were the highest, reaching 212.00 mg rutin equivalent (RE)/g DW and 93.06 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g DW, respectively, which were significantly higher than those previously reported. Such a valuable trait may be stacked with other triploid traits that are already established, such as larger vegetative organs and better tolerance to various stresses, as a feasible strategy for breeding loquat cultivars with high pharmaceutical potency.

Free access

Photosynthetic physiology of Dendrobium nobile, Dendrobium pendulum, Dendrobium chrysotoxum, and Dendrobium densiflorum was studied. A bimodal diurnal variation of the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) was observed in the four Dendrobium species with the first peak [5.09 to 6.06 μmol (CO2) per m−2·s−1] ≈1100 hr and the second peak [3.83 to 4.58 μmol (CO2) per m−2·s−1] at 1500 hr. No CO2 fixation was observed at night. For all four Dendrobium species, the light compensation point (LCP) was 5 to 10 μmol·m−2·s−1, light saturation point (LSP) ranged from 800 to 1000 μmol·m−2·s−1, apparent quantum yield (AQY) was 0.02, and CO2 compensation points (CCP) and saturation point (CSP) were 60 to 85 μmol·mol−1 and 800 to 1000 μmol·mol−1, respectively. Carboxylation efficiency (CE) values ranged from 0.011 to 0.020. The optimum temperature for photosynthesis was between 26 and 30 °C. The measurement of Pn seasonal variation indicated that July to August had the higher Pn for Dendrobium species. Additionally, the chlorophyll a/b (Chl a/b) ratios of the leaves were 2.77 to 2.89. Measurement of key enzymes in the photosynthetic pathway indicated relatively high Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) and glycolate oxidase (GO) activities but very low phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCase) activities. It suggested that these four Dendrobium species are typical semishade C3 plants.

Free access

Pelargonium is one of the important flower crops in USA. It is a priority genus for conservation at the USDA Ornamental Plant Germplasm Center (OPGC). It belongs to Geraniaceae family and comprises of about 280 species. To understand the genetic variation of the Pelargonium collection at OPGC, the PCR-based TRAP (target region amplified polymorphism) marker system which was newly developed in sunflower was used in this study. Twelve sets of primers were used to fingerprint 46 accessions representing 21 commercial P. hortorum, 17 scented geraniums and 8 other unidentified Pelargonium taxa. About 150 DNA bands could be detected in each primer and accession combination. Cluster analysis showed that molecular data was highly correlated with the phenotypes. Cultivars with similar morphological traits were clustered together. These results demonstrated that the TRAP system is a useful technique for the characterization and classification of Pelargonium collections.

Free access

Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is crucial for ensuring the maximum economic yield and reducing the risk of environmental pollution. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of N fertilizer management on root yield and N uptake of radish in southern China by using 15N isotope tracing. A 2-year field experiment was conducted with three N rates (0, 60, and 120 kg N/ha) and two different application proportions, viz, A [50% at basal, 20% at 15 days after seeding (DAS), 30% at 30 DAS] and B (30% at basal, 20% at 15 DAS, 50% at 30 DAS) for each N rate, which were expressed as N0, N60A, N60B, N120A, and N120B, respectively. The results showed that root yields were significantly increased with N rates increasing from 0 to 120 kg N/ha. The root yields for N120A and N120B were 67.60 t·ha−1 and 72.50 t·ha−1 at harvest, 64.07% and 66.67% higher than those for the treatments of N60A and N60B, respectively. Mean radish recovery of N fertilizer ranged from 25.90% at N120A to 32.60% at N60B, and N fertilizer residual rate in the soil ranged from 11.50% at N120A to 14.90% at N60B. About 17.50% to 35.70% of total uptake of 15N derived from basal fertilizer was absorbed at seeding stage. However, 61.87% to 80.18% of total uptake of 15N derived from topdressing fertilizer absorbed at root expanding stage. Therefore, appropriate nitrogen application with increasing topdressing nitrogen amount could increase root yield of radish and the nitrogen recovery efficiency. Nitrogen fertilizer application recommended was 120 kg N/ha with 30% for basal, 20% for 15 DAS and 50% for 30 DAS in this study.

Free access

This study explored the effects of different colored bags (blue, green, white, yellow, orange, and red) on russet deposition on the peel of semi-russet ‘Cuiguan’ pears 10 days after full bloom (DAFB). The process of russeting of the peel and structure of the cork layer were characterized by microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), followed by the detection of lignin and the activity of enzymes involved in lignin synthesis. The expression of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase, 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and peroxidase, which were related to phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, was determined via real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Russeting of the outer peel of ‘Cuiguan’ pear accumulated rapidly at 80 DAFB, and a positive relationship between the russet index and lignin content was observed. Red and infrared (IR) ray, partial far-IR light (600–800 nm), and ultraviolet-A light (350–400 nm) promoted russeting in ‘Cuiguan’ pear peel, whereas green light decreased russeting, the russet index, enzymatic activities, and the expression levels of enzymes involved in lignin synthesis. Values of all these factors were higher for ‘Cuiguan’ pears in red bags than for those in bags of other colors. These findings suggested that spectral components affected the synthesis of lignin and the formation of fruit russet. Storage in green bags reduced russeting and improved fruit appearance.

Free access

Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum) is an important warm-season turfgrass distributed in tropical and coastal areas. It has excellent resistance to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, and low temperature. However, the research on genetic diversity of local P. vaginatum collections from China is limited. In this study, the genetic diversity among 58 P. vaginatum accessions from four different provinces in China and four cultivars were assessed using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The results indicated that a total of 45 alleles were detected by 19 polymorphic markers, with a range of 2 to 4 and an average of 2.4 alleles per marker. The genetic similarity coefficients between each pair of the 58 P. vaginatum accessions and four cultivars ranged from 0.51 to 1.00, with an average of 0.77. The range of variation of Shannon diversity index of each SSR marker was 0.047 to 1.075, with an average of 0.486. The polymorphic information content of each SSR marker varies from 0.016 to 0.577, with an average of 0.249. The results of cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) showed that 58 P. vaginatum accessions and four cultivars were divided into four groups. These results provide the theoretical basis for the genetic diversity assessments and molecular marker–assisted breeding of P. vaginatum species.

Open Access