Grafting of vegetable seedlings is a unique horticultural technology practiced for many years in East Asia to overcome issues associated with intensive cultivation using limited arable land. This technology was introduced to Europe and other countries in the late 20th century along with improved grafting methods suitable for commercial production of grafted vegetable seedlings. Tomato grafting is becoming a well-developed practice worldwide with many horticultural advantages. The primary motivation for grafting tomato has been to prevent the damage caused by soilborne pathogens under intensive production system. However, recent reports suggest that grafting onto suitable rootstocks can also alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stresses such as salinity, water, temperature, and heavy metals besides enhancing the efficiency of water and nutrient use of tomato plants. This review gives an overview of the scientific literatures on the various aspects of tomato grafting including important steps of grafting, grafting methods, scion–rootstock interaction, and rootstock-derived changes in vegetative growth, fruit yield, and quality in grafted plants under different growing conditions. This review also highlights the economic significance of grafted tomato cultivation and offers discussion on the future thrust and technical issues that need to be addressed for the effective adoption of grafting.
Hira Singh, Pradeep Kumar, Sushila Chaudhari and Menahem Edelstein
Pradeep Kumar, Menahem Edelstein, Mariateresa Cardarelli, Emanuela Ferri and Giuseppe Colla
A greenhouse experiment was conducted to determine the influence of long-term cadmium (Cd) exposure (0, 25, or 50 µm of Cd) on crop productivity, fruit quality, leaf chlorophyll content, fluorescence, and mineral composition in plants of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Ikram), either nongrafted, self-grafted, or grafted onto rootstocks of tomato (Maxifort or Unifort) and eggplant (Black Beauty). Both moderate (25 µm) and high (50 µm) concentration of Cd in root environment considerably decreased the fruit yield and fruit number in response to Cd levels, whereas mean fruit weight decreased but was similar to both Cd supply levels. The fruit yield, shoot and root biomass, and leaf area (LA) were higher in plants grafted onto tomato rootstocks and especially onto Maxifort in comparison with nongrafted or self-grafted plants and especially grafted onto Black Beauty. The higher plant performance of tomato rootstock–grafted plants were related to higher chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigments concentration in leaves associated with better nutrient translocation and availability (higher Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Cu) in leaves. The content of Cd was also lower in leaves and fruits of Maxifort-grafted plants. Concerning fruit quality, especially peel color, toxicity symptoms, and Cd concentration, Black Beauty followed by Maxifort-grafted plants were better than the other grafting combinations. However, plants grafted onto Black Beauty rootstock resulted in lowest fruit yield and plant growth attributes due to lower nutrient uptake and translocation indicating some incompatibility reaction between Black Beauty rootstock and Ikram scion.