We investigated the partial physiological resistance (PPR) of common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to white mold disease caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) deBary. The activity of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was measured in detached stems inoculated with a growing mycelium of the pathogen. Noninoculated detached stems and whole plants were included as controls. Five bean cultivars-Upland, Bunsi, Sierra, UI-114, and Montcalm-and one breeding line-NY 5394-were tested; all varied in PPR to white mold disease. Greater PAL activity in the resistant NY 5394 than in the susceptible `Upland' suggests that PAL activity may be involved in the PPR of common beans to S. sclerotiorum.
Phillip N. Miklas, Kenneth F. Grafton and Phillip E. McClean
Mark J. Bassett, Rian Lee, Carla Otto and Phillip E. McClean
Inheritance of the strong greenish-yellow (SGY) seedcoat color in `Wagenaar' common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) was investigated. Line 5-593 is a determinate, Florida dry bean breeding line (with small black seeds) used as the recurrent parent in the development of many genetic stocks, e.g., g b v BC3 5-593. Through crosses with genetic tester stocks, the seedcoat genotype of `Wagenaar' was confirmed to be C J g b v lae Rk. Three randomly amplified polymorphic DNA markers (OAP7850, OAP31400, and OU14950) that cosegregated with the G seedcoat color locus were developed from the F2 population derived from the cross g b v BC2 5-593 × G b v BC3 5-593. From the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593, 80 F2 plants were classified into 54 non-SGY and 16 SGY seedcoat color plants. When the OAP7850 marker was applied to that population, linkage was not observed with the non-SGY and SGY phenotypes. Conversely, a molecular marker (OAP12400, that was developed from the F2 from the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593) linked to the locus controlling the SGY phenotype segregated independently of the G locus. Therefore, SGY phenotype is not controlled by the G locus. An F3 progeny test of 76 F2 plants from the cross `Wagenaar' × g b v BC3 5-593 confirmed the hypothesis that a single recessive gene (for which we propose the symbol gy) controls the seedcoat color change from pale greenish yellow (PGY) to SGY. Through crosses with genetic tester stocks, the seedcoat genotype of `Enola' was determined to be C J g b v lae Rk. The test cross `Enola' × `Wagenaar' demonstrated that `Enola' also carries the gy gene. The relationship of `Enola' to the `Mayocoba' market class of common bean and to `Azufrado Peruano 87' is discussed.
Mark J. Bassett, Rian Lee, Tim Symanietz and Phillip E. McClean
Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genes, J (modifies seedcoat color and pattern) and L (modifies partly colored seedcoat pattern), were tested for allelism using genetic tester stocks. Those stocks have a common genetic background by backcrossing to the recurrent parent, Florida dry bean breeding line 5-593, that has black self-colored seeds and purple flowers due to the genotype T P [C r] Z J G B V Rk. Specifically, the L gene from `Thuringia' and the lers gene from `Early Wax' were tested for allelism with the j gene from various genetic tester stocks. L was found to be identical with j, but l ers was a different allele at J. We propose the gene symbols J (formerly l), j (formerly L), and j ers (formerly l ers). The seedcoat genotype of `Thuringia' was found to be t P C z j g b v lae rk d. A new seedcoat pattern called reverse margo was found to be determined by the genotype T/t z/z j/j ers in a P C G B V genetic background. A randomly amplified polymorphic DNA marker was developed for the j gene (formerly L) from `Thuringia' using bulk segregant analysis in an F2 population segregating for j vs. J in a t z genetic background, i.e., from the cross t z j × t z J in BC1 to 5-593. The linkage distance between marker OL4525 and j was determined to be 1.2 cM. In a population segregating for J and j ers, the distance between the marker and j ers was determined to be 4.7 cM. The utility of marker OL4525 is limited primarily to the Middle American gene pool.