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Phillip C. Flanagan and W.T. Witte

Previous research at this facility has shown that copper sulfate, when incorporated with latex paint and applied to the interior surfaces of tube trays, was effective in chemically root pruning Quercus acutissima seedlings. Only 20% of deflected roots continued to grow after contacting Cu treated tube walls compared to controls. Treated plants showed a reduction of fibrous roots on the plug surface. Height and caliper were not affected by Cu treatments during chemical root pruning in the tube tray. Time required for regeneration of new roots was not affected by Cu treatments. Seedlings from each treatment were planted and grown two seasons under field conditions to observe effects on growth and root regeneration. No treatment effects occurred for height or caliper. Oak seedlings chemically root pruned with Cu exhibited more lateral growth and branching than control plants.

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Phillip C. Flanagan and W.T. Witte

Interior surfaces of tube trays were painted with white exterior acrylic latex paint and white interior latex paint containing 0, 50, or 300 gm/1 copper sulfate. Germinated Quercus acutissima seedlings were used to study chemical root pruning effects and subsequent root regeneration. After 16 weeks, only 0.73 roots per seedling continued growth after being deflected by the tubewall painted with 100gm/1 compared with 3.67 for the control. Fibrous roots were reduced when in contact with cu treated surfaces. Height and caliper were not affected at any treatment level. Three weeks after transplanting to larger untreated containers, height and caliper were still unaffected by any cu treatment. Time required for regeneration of new roots was not affected by cu treatments.

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Willard T. Witte, Scott Schlarbaum, Roger Sauve and Phillip C. Flanagan

Efforts have been underway since 1988 to establish a nursery research station in McMinnville, TN. Approximately 80 acres of farm property has been conveyed to Tennessee State University (TSU) for this purpose. Scientists at TSU, Tennessee Technological University, University of Tennessee, and USDA's National Arboretum and Shade Tree Laboratory have cooperated in obtaining funding via the Capacity Building Grants Program to initiate a plant evaluation and introduction program at the new station. Initial trials of woody genera include Acer, Castanea, Cornus, Lagerstroemia, Quercus, Syringa, and Ulmus. Herbaceous genera are Echinacea, Hemerocallis, and Hosta. Plantings will be made over a three year period as infrastructure at the new station develops. Complementary grant proposals have been recently submitted. Design, funding and support of all Tennessee introduction and evaluation programs will be discussed.

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Willard T. Witte, Scott Schlarbaum, Roger Sauve and Phillip C. Flanagan

Since 1988, efforts have been underway to establish a nursery research station in McMinnville, Warren County, Tennessee. Approximately 80 acres of farm property adjacent to the Collins scenic river has been conveyed to Tennessee State University (TSU) for this purpose. Scientists at TSU, Tennessee Technological University, University of Tennessee, and USDA's National Arboretum and Shade Tree Laboratory have cooperated in obtaining grant funds via the Capacity Building Grants Program to initiate a plant evaluation and introduction program. Replicated trials of woody genera include Acer, Castanea, Cornus, Lagerstroemia, Quercus, Syringa, Ulmus. Herbaceous genera are Echinacea, Hemerocallis, Hosta. Plantings will be made over a three year period as infrastructure at the new station develops. Additional grant proposals have been recently submitted.

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Phillip C. Flanagan, Roger Sauve and Willard T. Witte

The Tennessee State University Nursery Crops Research Station is located at McMinnville in Middle Tennessee. This is a major nursery production area with a USDA Zone 6b climate and 134 cm mean annual rainfall.

Approximately 4 ha has been established, with drip irrigation, for comparative evaluation trials of Acer, Cornus, Lagerstroemia, Quercus, Syringa and Ulmus. Plants are being evaluated for: 1) landscape performance - growth, drought tolerance, heat/cold tolerance, 2)ornamental characteristics - bloom. leafcolor, fall color, shape, 3) resistance to disease and pests, and 4) adaptability for production under commercial conditions. Acquisition of plant materials began in 1992 with the collection and planting of more than 120 spp/cv of Acer. Plantings in 1994 consisted of Cornus = 100 spp/cv; Lagerstroemia = 70 spp/cv; Quercus ≈ 90 spp/cv; Syringa ≈ 50 spp/cv and Ulmus ≈ 30 spp/cv.

The long term objective is the establishment of a comprehensive evaluation program for the nursery industry of Tennessee.

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Gary L. McDaniel, William E. Klingeman, Willard T. Witte and Phillip C. Flanagan

One-half (18 g·ha-1 a.i.) and three-fourths (27 g·ha-1 a.i.) rates of halosulfuron (Manage®, MON 12051) were combined with adjuvants and evaluated for effectiveness in controlling purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus L.) and for phytotoxic responses exhibited by two kinds of container-grown ornamental plants. Adjuvants included X-77®, Scoil®, Sun-It II®, Action “99”®, and Agri-Dex®. By 8 weeks after treatment (WAT), halosulfuron combined with X-77®, Agri-Dex®, or Action “99”® at the lower halosulfuron rate provided <90% purple nutsedge suppression. In contrast, Sun-It II® provided 100% control when combined with the higher halosulfuron rate. Nutsedge control persisted into the following growing season and halosulfuron combined with either Scoil® or Sun-It II® provided >97% suppression of nutsedge tuber production. Growth of liriope [Liriope muscari (Decne.) Bailey `Big Blue'] was not inhibited by Scoil® or Sun-It II® adjuvants in combination with the low rate of halosulfuron. However, regardless of the rate of halosulfuron or adjuvant used, initial foliar chlorosis was observed in both daylily (Hemerocallis sp. L. `Stella d'Oro') and liriope. All liriope receiving halosulfuron with X-77®, Scoil®, or Sun-It II® adjuvants recovered normal foliage by 8 WAT. By contrast, at 8 WAT some daylily still maintained a degree of foliar discoloration. In addition to chlorosis, all treatments reduced flower number in daylilies. The number of flower scapes produced by liriope was not affected by halosulfuron when in combination with either Sun-It II® or Scoil®. The high rate of halosulfuron combined with X-77® or Action “99”® improved control of purple nutsedge. However, this rate inhibited growth of both species, daylily flower numbers, and scape numbers of liriope, regardless of adjuvant. Chemical names used: halosulfuron (Manage®, MON 12051, methyl 5-{[(4,6-dimethyl-2-pyrimidinyl) amino] carbonyl-aminosulfonyl}-3-chloro-1-methyl-1-H-pyrozole-4-carboxylate); proprietary blends of 100% methylated seed oil (Scoil® and Sun-It II®); proprietary blend of 99% polyalkyleneoxide modified heptamethyl trisiloxane and nonionic surfactants (Action “99”®); alkylarylpolyoxyethylene, alkylpolyoxyethelene, fatty acids, glycols, dimethylpolysiloxane, and isopropanol (X-77®); proprietary blend of 83% paraffin-based petroleum oil, with 17% polyoxyethylate polyol fatty acid ester and polyol fatty ester as nonionic surfactants (Agri-Dex®)

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Rebecca M. Koepke-Hill, Gregory R. Armel, William E. Klingeman, Mark A. Halcomb, Jose J. Vargas and Phillip C. Flanagan

Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to determine if two indole-3-acetic acid herbicide mimics, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl, applied at 70, 140, and 280 g·ha−1 postemergence (POST) would control mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) in an abandoned nursery. These were compared with the commercial standards picloram at 280 g·ha−1 a.i. and clopyralid at 280 g·ha−1. In the field study, picloram and clopyralid controlled mugwort 75% and 31% by 365 days after treatment (DAT), respectively. In contrast, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl applied at 140 g·ha−1 controlled mugwort over 90% by 365 DAT. In the greenhouse study, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl applied at 140 g·ha−1 controlled mugwort 92% and 96% respectively, although aminopyralid at 70 g·ha−1 provided better visual control (94%) in comparison with aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl (79%) at 70 g·ha−1. Regardless, following shoot growth removal at 30 DAT, mugwort failed to regrow by 60 DAT following exposures to all rates of both herbicides. On the basis of these studies, aminopyralid and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl have potential to provide excellent control of mugwort compared with the current standards clopyralid and picloram.

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Joseph E. Beeler, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Jose J. Vargas, William E. Klingeman, Rebecca M. Koepke-Hill, Gary E. Bates, Dean A. Kopsell and Phillip C. Flanagan

Trumpetcreeper (Campsis radicans) is a native, perennial, weedy vine of pastures, row crops, fence rows, and right-of-ways throughout most of the eastern United States. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 near Newport, TN, and in Knoxville, TN, to evaluate aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl and aminopyralid alone and in mixtures with 2,4-D and diflufenzopyr for selective trumpetcreeper control when applied postemergence in an abandoned nursery. These treatments were compared with commercial standards of dicamba and a prepackaged mixture of triclopyr plus 2,4-D. In the field, aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl alone controlled trumpetcreeper 77% to 93%, while aminopyralid alone only controlled trumpetcreeper 0% to 20% by 12 months after treatment (MAT). The addition of diflufenzopyr or 2,4-D to aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl did not improve trumpetcreeper control in the field; however, the addition of 2,4-D to aminopyralid improved control of trumpetcreeper from 50% to 58%. All aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl treatments controlled trumpetcreeper greater than or equal to dicamba and the prepackaged mixture of triclopyr plus 2,4-D. In the greenhouse, aminocyclopyrachlor and aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl applied at 8.75 to 35 g·ha−1 controlled trumpetcreeper 58% to 72% by 1 MAT. When both herbicides were applied at 70 g·ha−1, aminocyclopyrachlor controlled trumpetcreeper 64%, while aminocyclopyrachlor-methyl controlled trumpetcreeper 99%, similar to dicamba.

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Matthew A. Cutulle, Gregory R. Armel, James T. Brosnan, Dean A. Kopsell, William E. Klingeman, Phillip C. Flanagan, Gregory K. Breeden, Jose J. Vargas, Rebecca Koepke-Hill and Mark A. Halcomb

Selective weed control in ornamental plant production can be difficult as many herbicides can cause unacceptable injury. Research was conducted to evaluate the tolerance of several ornamental species to applications of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicides for the control of problematic weeds in ornamental production. Mestotrione (0.09, 0.18, and 0.36 lb/acre), tembotrione (0.08, 0.16, and 0.32 lb/acre), and topramezone (0.016, 0.032, and 0.064 lb/acre) were applied alone postemergence (POST) in comparison with the photosystem II-inhibiting herbicide, bentazon (0.5 lb/acre). All herbicide treatments, with the exception of the two highest rates of tembotrione, caused less than 8% injury to ‘Noble Upright’ japanese holly (Ilex crenata) and ‘Compactus’ burning bush (Euonymus alatus). Similarly, no herbicide treatment caused greater than 12% injury to ‘Girard’s Rose’ azalea (Azalea). Conversely, all herbicides injured flowering dogwood (Cornus florida) 10% to 23%. Mesotrione- and tembotrione-injured ‘Radrazz’ rose (Rosa) 18% to 55%, compared with only 5% to 18% with topramezone. ‘Siloam June Bug’ daylily (Hemerocallis) injury with topramezone and tembotrione was less than 10%. Topramezone was the only herbicide evaluated that provided at least 93% control of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus) with all application rates by 4 weeks after treatment (WAT). Redroot pigweed was controlled 67% to 100% with mesotrione and tembotrione by 4 WAT, but this activity was variable among application rates. Spotted spurge (Chamaesyce maculata) was only adequately controlled by mesotrione applications at 0.18 and 0.36 lb/acre, whereas chamberbitter (Phyllanthus urinaria) was not controlled sufficiently with any herbicide evaluated in these studies. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) was suppressed 72% to 87% with mesotrione applications at 0.18 lb/acre or higher and with bentazon at 0.5 lb/acre by 4 WAT. All other herbicide treatments provided less than 58% control of yellow nutsedge. In the second study, ‘Patriot’ hosta (Hosta), ‘Green Sheen’ pachysandra (Pachysandra terminalis), autumn fern (Dryopteris erythrosora), ‘Little Princess’ spirea (Spiraea japonica), ‘Green Giant’ arborvitae (Thuja plicata), and ‘Rosea’ weigela (Weigela florida) displayed no response to topramezone when applied at 0.024 and 0.095 lb/acre. Since 10 ornamental species in our studies exhibited less than 10% herbicidal response with all rates of at least one HPPD-inhibiting herbicide then it is possible that these herbicides may provide selective POST weed control in ornamental production systems.