Micropropagation of 11 rare or endangered cacti species belonging to the subtribe Cactinae was achieved by rooting of proliferated axillary shoots. Shoot tip explants were obtained from seedlings of Escobaria missouriensis D.R. Hunt, E. robbinsorum (Earle) D.R. Hunt, Sclerocactus spinosior (Engelm.) Woodruff & L. Benson, and Toumeya papyracantha (Engelm.) Br. & Rose, and from mature plants of Mammillaria wrightii Engelm., Pediocactus bradyi L. Benson, P. despainii Welsh & Goodrich, P. knowltonii L. Benson, P. paradinei B.W. Benson, P. winkleri Heil, and S. mesae-verdae (Boissevain) L. Benson. Three or four species were used in each of a series of experiments investigating the effects of basal media and auxin and cytokinin types and concentrations on axillary shoot proliferation. Low or no auxin but moderate to high cytokinin concentrations were required for axillary shoot production. All species rooted spontaneously on hormone-free media; however, several species rooted better on media containing auxin. All species were re-established in the greenhouse.