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  • Author or Editor: Pere Arús x
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Pollen samples of 155 olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from different origins were analyzed to study isoenzymatic variability in five enzyme systems: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), esterase (EST), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), and malic enzyme (ME) using starch gel electrophoresis. Polymorphism was observed in all of the isozyme systems. ME, GPI, EST, and LAP were the most useful systems for identification of cultivars. Different combinations of banding patterns of these systems allowed us to identify 85% of the cultivars. The remainder were separated into groups of two or three cultivars that could be identified using morphological characteristics. No intracultivar polymorphisms were observed.

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Ten isozyme genes were studied after analyzing the variability of eight enzyme systems—glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), phosphoglucomutase (PGM), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH), and aconitase (ACO)—in the progeny of five crosses among almond [Prunus amygdalus Batsch, syn. P. dulcis (Miller) D. A. Webb] cultivars. Six of these loci were found to be located in two linkage groups, one containing four loci (Pgm-2, Gpi-2, Aat-2, and Lap-1) and two more in the other (Idh-2 and Aat-1). Genetic configurations of pairs of loci specific to segregating F1 progeny of crosses between heterozygous parents were found in our data, for which we derived the estimate of the recombination fraction and its variance. Linkage data for the gene pairs that could be estimated in various crosses were used to obtain a joint estimation of the recombination fraction.

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A sample of 210 cultivars of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, with a wide range of fruit and plant characteristics, was studied for variability using nine polymorphic amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer combinations. Forty-seven AFLPs allowed identification of 196 (93%) different genotypes, 187 of which could be distinguished with three primer combinations. Eleven cultivars with the same AFLP phenotype corresponded to known somatic mutations (sports), but from the four sports of the `Springcrest' group, two (`Maycrest' and `Queencrest') differed at three AFLPs from the others (`Starcrest' and `Early Maycrest'). Cluster analysis allowed differentiation of most cultivars with nonmelting fruit flesh, generally used for canning, from the melting-flesh peach and nectarine cultivars used for fresh consumption.

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Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is a perishable fruit that requires refrigeration to extend its shelf life. Postharvest behavior differs substantially among melon varieties due to genetic differences. In this work, we use a collection of near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from a cross between the Spanish cultivar Piel de Sapo (PS) and an exotic Korean accession ‘Shongwan Charmi’ [SC (PI161375)], each of them with a single introgressed region from SC into the PS background, to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved in postharvest life traits, such as total losses, water-soaking, necrosis of the placental tissue, chilling injury (CI), decay, fruit over-ripening, flesh browning, hollow flesh disorder, and flavor loss during storage. Fruit were examined at harvest and after 35 days at 8 °C. Three QTLs induced desirable quality traits: flv4.1 reduced the loss of fruit flavor after refrigeration, tl8.1 reduced total losses, and fus8.4 reduced the susceptibility to fusarium rot (Fusarium Link). Another 11 QTLs produced a detrimental effect on other quality traits. The NIL population was useful for dissecting complex, difficult-to-measure pre- and postharvest disorder traits of different degrees of development and for investigating flavor loss during storage. Further studies with the QTLs described herein will shed light on the genetic control of melon shelf life and help breeders who are interested in this fruit quality trait.

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A collection of melon (Cucumis melo L.) near-isogenic lines (NILs) derived from the cross between the Spanish C. melo cultivar Piel de Sapo (PS) and the exotic Korean accession Shongwan Charmi [SC (PI161375)], was used to study the genetic control of a large number of melon fruit quality traits, including morphological, external appearance, texture, flavor, and the overall differences between NILs and PS that might be detected by consumers with a triangle test. Heritability was significant for all the traits, being >0.5 for the whole area of the longitudinal section of the fruit, flesh proportion, skin lightness color, hue angle coordinate of flesh color, and flesh-extractable juice. NILs were classified by principal-component analysis. The first principal component (22% of the variation) was affected mostly by morphological traits, the second component (10%) was influenced by internal and external morphology pattern and color, and the third component (9%) was controlled mainly by flavor traits. An average of 5.6 quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified (range, between 1 and 12 QTL; 134 QTL in total). In most cases, allele effects with opposite actions were detected. A substantial number of QTL may be good candidates to introduce new quality attributes in modern melon cultivars.

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The recessive allele (nsv) of the NSV gene confers resistance to the Carmovirus melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) in melon (Cucumis melo L.). Using an F2 population obtained from the cross between the resistant Korean accession PI 161375 and a susceptible line of `Piel de Sapo', we have mapped the NSV locus to linkage group 11 (G11) of the melon genome. Additional markers closely linked to NSV were developed by bulked segregant analysis (BSA) using a doubled haploid progeny population derived from the same cross. A detailed map of the NSV region was constructed containing 10 markers spanning a distance of 17.7 cM. The nearest flanking markers to NSV were two amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) (CTA/ACG-115 and CTA/ACG-120) and one random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) (OPD08-0.80) separated by 5.9 cM. Two more markers, ACC/ACC-110 and OPX15-1.06, cosegregated with NSV.

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A melon (Cucumis melo L.) genomic library of near-isogenic lines derived from the cross between the Spanish cultivar Piel de Sapo and the exotic accession PI 161375 has been evaluated for fruit quality traits in four different locations. Traits evaluated were fruit weight, soluble solids content, maximum fruit diameter, fruit length, fruit shape index, ovary shape index, external color, and flesh color. Among these traits, soluble solids content showed the highest genotype × environment interaction, whereas genotype × environment interactions for fruit shape and fruit weight were low. Heritability was high for all traits except soluble solids content, with the highest value for fruit shape and ovary shape. Ten to 15 quantitative trait loci were detected for soluble solids content, fruit diameter, fruit length, and fruit shape; and four to five for ovary shape, external color, and flesh color. Depending on the trait, between 13% and 40% of the detected quantitative trait alleles from PI 161375 increased the trait, and between 60% and 87% of them decreased it, resulting in some PI 161375 alleles of interest for breeding. Most of the quantitative trait loci detected in previous experiments could be verified with the near-isogenic line population. Future studies with the melon near-isogenic line genomic library will provide a better understanding of the genetic control of melon fruit quality in a wider context related to agronomy, genetics, genomics and metabolomics studies.

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