Among the crops that are usually grown under irrigation, one can mention garlic, which is a product with high demand in Brazil and the world, it is highly valued in the cuisine of several countries, and is an aggregated crop with high economic value. In 2018, this work was conducted in Yellow Red Latosol. The objective was to characterize the structure and magnitude of the spatial distribution of garlic production components and to map the productive components to visualize spatial distribution and to evaluate the spatial correlation between garlic bulb yield (BY) and other variables of the crop: total plant mass (TPM), number of leaves (NL), floral tassel length (FTL), leaf length (LL), leaf width (LW), pseudostem diameter (PD), shoot wet mass (SWM), shoot dry mass (SDM), number of cloves per bulb (NCB), clove mass (CM), root dry mass (RDM), and irrigation (IRR). All these traits were sampled in a 90-point grid georeferenced. Data analysis using statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the production components and BY, TPM, NL, FTL, LL, LW, PD, SWM, SDM, CM, and IRR presented special dependence. The spatial correlation between BY and TPM, LW, and CM showed a moderate spatial dependence.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Lucas Allan Almeida Oliveira, Paulo Teodoro and Rafael Montanari
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Mario Puiatti, Paulo Teodoro and Rafael Montanari
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the spatial variability of plant production components and the use of an irrigation and fertirrigation management system with controlled deficit affect the yield and incidence of garlic lateral shoot growing (LSG). An analysis of these data through statistical and geostatistical techniques made it possible to verify that the increase in yield is directly related to the height and diameter of the bulb and that the lateral shoot growing is directly related to the increase in yield. Lower water depths and lower nitrogen doses applied during clove differentiation imply a lower incidence of LSG, whereas increased irrigation and fertigation with nitrogen results in lower bulb volumes.
Adriano dos Santos, Francisco Eduardo Torres, Erina Vitório Rodrigues, Ariane de Andréa Pantaleão, Larissa Pereira Ribeiro Teodoro, Leonardo Lopes Bhering and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of cowpea genotypes using a nonlinear regression analysis and multivariate analysis. Experiments were performed at four sites in Brazil using a randomized blocks design with 20 treatments and four replications. The adaptability and stability of genotypes were evaluated by Toler nonlinear regression and genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot methodologies. Most of the genotypes revealed linear response patterns, with no differences regarding the favorable and unfavorable environments. Regarding the genotype classification for stability and adaptability, the Toler and GGE biplot methodologies are congruent. Genotypes MNC99-537F-4, MNC00-561G-6, MNC99542F-5, and Patativa have high overall adaptability and adequate yield. Therefore, they should be recommended for cultivation in the tested environments. Genotypes closer to the ideotype by the GGE biplot method are considered doubly desirable by the nonlinear method.
Givago Coutinho, Rafael Pio, Filipe Bittencourt Machado de Souza, Daniela da Hora Farias, Adriano Teodoro Bruzi and Paulo Henrique Sales Guimarães
Among the fruit species cultivated in subtropical climates, quince has productive cultivars with high horticultural potential. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the genetic divergence among quince cultivars through multivariate procedures and to identify cultivars for cultivation in the tropics through selection indices. Twenty-seven productive quince cultivars were grown in a location with a high-altitude tropical climate. The number of fruit, estimated yield, flowering period, number of buds, number of shoots, number of brindles per shoot, shoot length, average fruit weight, fruit length, and fruit diameter were measured. A multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) associated with the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic means (UPGMA) based on Gower distance and Pearson correlation coefficients was used to evaluate genetic divergence. Superior cultivars were defined by the selection index based on the rank summation index and the Z-index. UPGMA grouping indicated there was genetic variability among cultivars and showed that groups that were more dissimilar [e.g., the cultivars Bereckzy and Champion (distance = 0.69)] had the potential to be used in future stages of quince selection. The estimated yield, shoot length, fruit weight and diameter, and flowering period contributed to the maximum variability among quince cultivars. The selection indices identified cvs. Bereckzy, Alaranjado, and Alongado (30, 68, and 73 rank summation index, respectively) as superior, simultaneously considering the evaluated traits with greater potential for cultivation in the tropics.
Felipe Barrera Sánchez, Larissa Pereira Ribeiro, Mayara Fávero Cotrim, Carlos Antonio da Silva Junior, Leonardo Lopes Bhering and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
This study aimed to estimate the predicted genetic gains with the simultaneous selection of yield traits and soluble solids content in cherry tomato hybrids. Twenty cherry tomato hybrids were evaluated in hydroponic cultivation in randomized block design with three replicates. The following traits were evaluated: number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, and total soluble solids content. The parameters of heritability, experimental cv, and genotypic cv were estimated. Subsequently, selection gains by direct selection and Mulamba and Mock index were estimated. Direct selection of cherry tomato hybrids for fruit yield and soluble solids content is inefficient because selection based on one of these traits will provide undesirable gains in the other. However, simultaneous selection for yield and taste quality is possible based on the Mulamba and Mock index because the methodology provided high selection gains for both yield and soluble solids content.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Domingos Sarvio Magalhães Valente, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
Some compaction states cause changes in soil structure, resulting in increased soil density and soil resistance to penetration (RP). The objective of this study was: a) to analyze the variability of the studied attributes of the plant and the soil; b) define the linear and spatial correlations between plant and soil attributes; and c) to identify the best attributes that correlate spatially with garlic yield (GY) and lateral shoot growth (LSG) for the elaboration of spatial variability maps. The attributes evaluated were GY, apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC), mechanical resistance to penetration (MRP), soil volumetric moisture (SVM), plant water potential (WP), and LSG. The reach values of spatial dependence to be considered in future studies using the same attributes should be between 8 m for apparent soil EC and 23 m for RP. From a spatial point of view, garlic LSG could be estimated by indirect cokriging with soil RP. Values greater than 3000 kPa of soil RP indicated the sites with the lowest GYs.
Carlos Henrique Oliveira de David, Vespasiano Borges de Paiva Neto, Cid Naudi Silva Campos, Priscilla Maria da Silva Liber Lopes, Paulo Eduardo Teodoro and Renato de Mello Prado
This study evaluated the impact of macronutrient omission on nutritional disorders and the in vitro growth of Bletia catenulata. The experiment was performed in a growth room, with a controlled environment, in the biotechnology laboratory of the Campus of Chapadão do Sul (CPCS/UFMS). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design, with seven treatments and four replications, corresponding to the following treatments: complete treatment (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mo), nitrogen omission (–N), phosphorus omission (–P), potassium omission (–K), calcium omission (–Ca), magnesium omission (–Mg), and sulfur omission (–S) in B. catenulata. After detecting the symptoms, plant height, leaf area, dry weight, micronutrient content in the shoot, micronutrient accumulation in the shoot, and visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency were evaluated. The –N, –P, –Ca, and –Mg treatments hindered plant growth and dry weight yield. The deficiency of each nutrient resulted in morphological changes, which were verified by typical visual symptoms of nutritional disorder for each nutrient.
Job Teixeira de Oliveira, Rubens Alves de Oliveira, Fernando França da Cunha, Isabela da Silva Ribeiro, Lucas Allan Almeida Oliveira and Paulo Eduardo Teodoro
The objective of this work was to investigate the direct and indirect relationships of morphological variables on garlic bulb yield. The primary components of garlic bulb yield, including clove mass, number of cloves per bulb, and bulb diameter and bulb length, are the variables that affect garlic bulb yield directly. Leaf length and growth of a secondary bulb had a negative correlation to garlic bulb yield. Growth of a secondary bulb also had a negative correlation with the number of cloves per bulb and root dry mass. Irrigation with the deficit, applied at the stage of bulb formation, had a positive correlation with garlic yield and a slightly negative correlation with total plant mass, bulb length, and secondary bulb growth.