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- Author or Editor: Paulo Eduardo Teodoro x
This study aimed to evaluate the adaptability and phenotypic stability of cowpea genotypes using a nonlinear regression analysis and multivariate analysis. Experiments were performed at four sites in Brazil using a randomized blocks design with 20 treatments and four replications. The adaptability and stability of genotypes were evaluated by Toler nonlinear regression and genotype plus genotype × environment (GGE) biplot methodologies. Most of the genotypes revealed linear response patterns, with no differences regarding the favorable and unfavorable environments. Regarding the genotype classification for stability and adaptability, the Toler and GGE biplot methodologies are congruent. Genotypes MNC99-537F-4, MNC00-561G-6, MNC99542F-5, and Patativa have high overall adaptability and adequate yield. Therefore, they should be recommended for cultivation in the tested environments. Genotypes closer to the ideotype by the GGE biplot method are considered doubly desirable by the nonlinear method.
To contribute to commercial classification, this work sought to evaluate correlations between fruit mass and other physical characteristics of blackberry fruit, indicating direct and indirect effects of morphology and physical characteristics on blackberry fruit mass. The variables evaluated were the total mass of the blackberry fruit along with its physical components: fruit length, greater transverse diameter, smaller transverse diameter, fruit area, fruit perimeter, and fruit volume. Results of our analyses show that an increase in fruit length, fruit perimeter, and fruit volume reflects an increase in the total mass of the blackberry fruit. Indirectly, greater values of fruit length, greater transverse diameter, and smaller transverse diameter reflect an increase in the perimeter and volume of the blackberry fruit, thus contributing to larger, more attractive fruit.
The study aimed to analyze the distribution and spatial autocorrelation of irrigation concerning the other productive components of the garlic crop. The productive components were distributed in thematic maps, and the spatial autocorrelation was estimated by the Moran index, which quantifies the autocorrelation degree. Results show that irrigation contributes to higher yield, with bulbs of larger diameter and heavier cloves. Plants under drought stress conditions tend to develop wider and longer leaves with a higher shoot dry matter. The bivariate analysis revealed that irrigation in garlic is closely related to all explanatory variables.
The objective of this work was to investigate the direct and indirect relationships of morphological variables on garlic bulb yield. The primary components of garlic bulb yield, including clove mass, number of cloves per bulb, and bulb diameter and bulb length, are the variables that affect garlic bulb yield directly. Leaf length and growth of a secondary bulb had a negative correlation to garlic bulb yield. Growth of a secondary bulb also had a negative correlation with the number of cloves per bulb and root dry mass. Irrigation with the deficit, applied at the stage of bulb formation, had a positive correlation with garlic yield and a slightly negative correlation with total plant mass, bulb length, and secondary bulb growth.
This study aimed to estimate the predicted genetic gains with the simultaneous selection of yield traits and soluble solids content in cherry tomato hybrids. Twenty cherry tomato hybrids were evaluated in hydroponic cultivation in randomized block design with three replicates. The following traits were evaluated: number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster, number of fruits per cluster, number of fruits per plant, fruit weight, fruit yield per plant, and total soluble solids content. The parameters of heritability, experimental cv, and genotypic cv were estimated. Subsequently, selection gains by direct selection and Mulamba and Mock index were estimated. Direct selection of cherry tomato hybrids for fruit yield and soluble solids content is inefficient because selection based on one of these traits will provide undesirable gains in the other. However, simultaneous selection for yield and taste quality is possible based on the Mulamba and Mock index because the methodology provided high selection gains for both yield and soluble solids content.
Some compaction states cause changes in soil structure, resulting in increased soil density and soil resistance to penetration (RP). The objective of this study was: a) to analyze the variability of the studied attributes of the plant and the soil; b) define the linear and spatial correlations between plant and soil attributes; and c) to identify the best attributes that correlate spatially with garlic yield (GY) and lateral shoot growth (LSG) for the elaboration of spatial variability maps. The attributes evaluated were GY, apparent soil electrical conductivity (EC), mechanical resistance to penetration (MRP), soil volumetric moisture (SVM), plant water potential (WP), and LSG. The reach values of spatial dependence to be considered in future studies using the same attributes should be between 8 m for apparent soil EC and 23 m for RP. From a spatial point of view, garlic LSG could be estimated by indirect cokriging with soil RP. Values greater than 3000 kPa of soil RP indicated the sites with the lowest GYs.
This study evaluated the impact of macronutrient omission on nutritional disorders and the in vitro growth of Bletia catenulata. The experiment was performed in a growth room, with a controlled environment, in the biotechnology laboratory of the Campus of Chapadão do Sul (CPCS/UFMS). The experiment consisted of a completely randomized design, with seven treatments and four replications, corresponding to the following treatments: complete treatment (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Mn, Zn, Cu, Fe, and Mo), nitrogen omission (–N), phosphorus omission (–P), potassium omission (–K), calcium omission (–Ca), magnesium omission (–Mg), and sulfur omission (–S) in B. catenulata. After detecting the symptoms, plant height, leaf area, dry weight, micronutrient content in the shoot, micronutrient accumulation in the shoot, and visual symptoms of nutritional deficiency were evaluated. The –N, –P, –Ca, and –Mg treatments hindered plant growth and dry weight yield. The deficiency of each nutrient resulted in morphological changes, which were verified by typical visual symptoms of nutritional disorder for each nutrient.
This study aimed to identify promising crosses to generate cowpea breeding populations for the Brazilian Cerrado region. The experiment was carried out during the two crop seasons. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and 20 genotypes prostrate. The effect of genotypes was significant for all traits evaluated. The Mahalanobis distance and the Tocher’s cluster were used to estimate the genetic diversity. Singh’s criterion was used to quantify the contribution of each trait to genetic diversity. Mass of hundred grains and grain yield were the traits that most contributed to detect diversity among cowpea genotypes. The crosses between the G14 genotype with G2, G3, G4, G5, G6, G11, G16, and G20 are promising for the development of populations with variability and high genetic potential.