Canes of three field-grown cultivars of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L. `Maurin Makea', `Ottawa', and `Muskoka') were sampled from October to April. Carbohydrate contents of canes and flower buds were analyzed, and cold hardiness (LT50) was determined by controlled freezing. Starch, sucrose, glucose, fructose, and minor amounts of raffinose and stachyose were present in both cane and bud tissues. Glucose and fructose were the predominant sugars in buds. In canes, the proportion of sucrose of all sugars was greater than in buds. Seasonal changes in carbohydrates were related to changes in cold hardiness and mean air temperature during a 5-day period preceding sampling. Starch decreased during fall and was barely detectable in midwinter. Soluble carbohydrates accumulated to 73 to 89 mg·g-1 dry weight in canes and 113 to 131 mg·g-1 dry weight in buds in midwinter. The most striking increase occurred in the concentration of sucrose, but glucose, fructose, raffinose, and stachyose also accumulated. There was a positive correlation between LT50 and the amount of starch, but a negative correlation between LT50 and the amounts of total soluble carbohydrates, sucrose, glucose, and fructose. High levels of sucrose, total soluble carbohydrates, and a high ratio of sucrose to glucose plus fructose were characteristic of a hardy cultivar. Results are evidence of the importance of carbohydrate reserves, especially sucrose, on winter survival of red raspberry.
Pauliina Palonen and Leena Lindén
`Maurin Makea', `Muskoka', ` Ottawa', and `Preussen' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) canes were collected from the field and subjected to different hot water treatments (20, 35, 40, 45, and 50 °C) to determine if endodormancy could be removed by a near lethal stress. Estimation of days for 50% budbreak (DD50) was found useful for describing the state of bud dormancy in the samples. Bud dormancy was broken in `Ottawa' by immersing the canes in 45 °C water for 2 hours, in `Maurin Makea' by treating the canes in 40 °C water, and in `Preussen' by both 40 and 45 °C treatments. The influence of this treatment on dormancy and cold hardiness at different times of the winter was further examined using `Ottawa' raspberry. The treatment removed bud dormancy most effectively in October, when the samples were in deepest dormancy. A slight effect was observed in November, but no effect in January. During ecodormancy in February the treatment delayed budbreak. Hot water treatment reduced cold hardiness of `Ottawa' canes by 8 to 15 °C, and that of buds by 9 to 13 °C during both endo- and ecodormancy. Based on the capacity of buds and canes to reacclimate, recovery from the stress treatment was possible at temperatures ≥4 °C. Loss of cold hardiness was caused by high treatment temperature itself and was not related to breaking of dormancy in samples. This finding suggests that dormancy and cold hardiness are physiologically unconnected in raspberry.
Pauliina Palonen and Leena Lindén
Canes and flower buds of selected red raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus L. `Maurin Makea', `Muskoka', and `Ottawa') were sampled from a field (latitude, 61 °20'N; longitude, 24 °13'E) at 1-month intervals during Winter 1996-97 to study the interaction of dormancy and cold hardiness, hardiness retention, and rehardening capacity. One set of canes was subjected to dehardening (3 days) and two sets to dehardening + rehardening (3 and 7 days) treatments before cold hardiness determination. Maximum midwinter hardiness occurred in January, after breaking of endodormancy. Cold hardiness of canes and buds reached -28.6 to -37.2 °C and -24.2 to -31.6 °C, respectively. Throughout the winter, raspberry canes were hardier than buds. Endodormancy had a greater influence on dehardening and rehardening in buds than in canes, and cultivars differed in their response. Dehardening of `Maurin Makea' canes and buds, and `Muskoka' buds was slightly enhanced by breaking of dormancy, whereas dehardening in `Ottawa' was not affected by dormancy. Raspberry canes and buds could reharden even after dormancy release. Rehardening capacity was affected by the state of dormancy only in `Maurin Makea' buds. Changes in dormancy status failed to explain cultivar differences regarding dehardening and the capacity to reharden suggesting other factors may be involved.
Pauliina Palonen and Katriina Mouhu
Maintaining an appropriate balance between vegetative and generative growth is a prerequisite for profitable raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) production. The objective of our study was to test the effect of prohexadione–calcium (ProCa) on vegetative growth and flowering of primocane fruiting red raspberry ‘Ariadne’ in greenhouse conditions. ProCa was applied either once or twice in a concentration of 100 ppm or 200 ppm. Double applications of ProCa reduced cane height by 33 cm (100 ppm) or by 46 cm (200 ppm). Growth reduction was the result of shortening of the internodes, because total node number in plants was unaffected. Furthermore, cane diameter was reduced in plants treated with 200 ppm ProCa. ProCa treatments reduced the total aboveground dry weight by 32% to 55% but did not affect the allocation of dry weight into different plant parts. All ProCa treatments reduced the number of flowers by 22% to 42%. In conclusion, ProCa proved effective in controlling vegetative growth of red raspberry. However, because the number of flowers was reduced, ProCa cannot be recommended for growth regulation of primocane fruiting raspberry without further studies.
Marja Rantanen and Pauliina Palonen
Partially released dormancy causes poor and uneven bud break in temperate plant species like red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Insufficient chilling may be a problem when raspberries are grown at southern latitudes and in year-round production. Dormancy may be released by sublethal stress in many species. We studied the effect of sublethal stress on endodormancy in red raspberry ‘Glen Ample’ and ‘Ottawa’. Canes growing in pots were treated with either hot water (45 °C, 1 h) or the dormancy-breaking chemical, hydrogen cyanamide (1.04%), after accumulation of 0, 240, 480, 720, 960, or 1200 h of chilling at 1 °C. Bud break, vegetative growth, and number of flowers were recorded during 12 weeks of greenhouse forcing after the treatments. Chilling increased bud break, growth, and dry weight of lateral shoots and number of flowers in both cultivars. During deepest endodormancy (0 and 240 h of chilling), treatment with either hot water or hydrogen cyanamide enhanced bud break and lateral shoot growth but could not completely replace chilling. In ‘Ottawa’, hydrogen cyanamide was more effective than hot water during deepest endodormancy, but hot water treatment broke dormancy effectively when 720 h of chilling had accumulated. For ‘Glen Ample’, hot water was as effective as hydrogen cyanamide in breaking endodormancy. Hot water treatment reduced the number of flowers in ‘Glen Ample’ during late endodormancy (720, 960, and 1200 h of chilling). The chilling requirement for ‘Ottawa’ was fulfilled between 720 and 960 h of chilling. However, in ‘Glen Ample’, 1200 h of chilling was not enough to fully release bud dormancy; bud break remained low and it was increased by dormancy-breaking treatments. Hot water treatment can be used to release endodormancy in raspberries, but treatment conditions need to be optimized to preserve crop potential. Chemical name used: hydrogen cyanamide (Dormex, Hi-Cane, Morgrapes).
Leena Lindén, Pauliina Palonen and Mikael Lindén
Seasonal cold hardiness of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) canes was measured by freeze-induced electrolyte leakage test and visual rating of injury. Leakage data were transformed to percentage-adjusted injury values and related to lethal temperature by graphical interpolation and by the midpoint (T50) and inflection point (Tmax) estimates derived from three sigmoid (the logistic, Richards, and Gompertz) functions. Tmax estimates produced by Richards and Gompertz functions were corrected further using two different procedures. The 10 leakage-based hardiness indices, thus derived, were compared to lethal-temperature estimates based on visual rating. Graphical interpolation and Tmax of the logistic or T50 of the Gompertz function yielded lethal-temperature estimates closest to those obtained visually. Also, Tmax values of the Gompertz function were well correlated with visual hardiness indices. The Richards function yielded hardiness estimates deviating largely from visual rating. In addition, the Richards function displayed a considerable lack of fit in several data sets. The Gompertz function was preferred to the logistic one as it allows for asymmetry in leakage response. Percentage-adjusted injury data transformation facilitated curve-fitting and enabled calculation of T50 estimates.
Pauliina Palonen, Danielle Donnelly and Deborah Buszard
Low tissue-water content and increased osmotic concentration of cell sap are associated with frost resistance. Changes in total osmotic concentration of cell sap are due mainly to changes in concentration of sugars. Generally, sugar content increases with hardening and decreases with dehardening. This study examined the effect of elevated sucrose levels (3% to 15%) in the medium on the cold hardiness of `Festival' red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) shoots in vitro. To determine whether expected hardening is caused by elevated sucrose levels or by osmotic stress, different levels of mannitol in the media have been tested. After growing raspberry shoots on media with different levels of sucrose and mannitol for 2 weeks, shoot moisture content (percent) was determined. Cold hardiness of the shoots was determined by using differential thermal analysis or artificially freezing the shoots and assessing the survival by regrowth test and visual rating.