Oxygen supply to the root zone is essential for healthy plant growth, and one technology that can potentially supply additional oxygen is the injection of purified oxygen (oxygenation) into irrigation water. The objective was to evaluate whether oxygenation of irrigation water affected plant growth and substrate dissolved oxygen (DO) levels during mist propagation of unrooted cuttings and subsequent growth in containers. Dissolved oxygen measured at source tanks for ambient tap water (averaging 7.1 mg·L−1) or oxygenated tap water (31.1 mg·L−1) was pumped through fine (69 µm) mist nozzles for propagation of Calibrachoa ×hybrid ‘Aloha Kona Dark Red’ and Lobelia erinus ‘Bella Aqua’. There were no measured differences in root length or root dry mass for Calibrachoa and Lobelia propagated using oxygenated water compared with ambient water because DO of ambient or oxygenated water reached ≈100% oxygen saturation in water (8.7 mg·L−1) after passing through mist nozzles. To evaluate subsequent growth without the effect on DO of fine emitters, rooted cuttings of these two plant species and Pelargonium ×hortorum ‘Patriot Red’ were grown in 10.2-cm diameter pots. The plants were irrigated with either ambient (6.0 mg·L−1) or oxygenated (27.7 mg·L−1) nutrient solutions, delivered by top watering or subirrigation when the substrate dried to ≈45% of container capacity (CC), measured gravimetrically. Oxygenated water did not enhance root or shoot growth compared with ambient water for the three bedding plants. In addition, Pelargonium growth was not enhanced when irrigated at high moisture level (maintained at 80% CC) with oxygenated water compared with ambient water. In container substrate without plants, it was possible to increase DO of the substrate solution by 68% when a high volume of oxygenated water (200% container volume or 850 mL) was applied by top watering because existing substrate solution was displaced. In contrast, when containers were subirrigated at 45% CC, the smaller 180-mL volume of oxygenated water was absorbed by the substrate and did not increase DO compared with ambient water. Overall, irrigating with oxygenated water did not enhance root or plant growth of three bedding plants grown in porous, peat-based substrate. To increase oxygen supply to roots in container production, growers should focus on having adequate air porosity in substrate and avoiding overwatering.
Erin J. Yafuso and Paul R. Fisher
Dustin P. Meador and Paul R. Fisher
The objective was to quantify the effect of water-soluble fertilizers on concentration of free chlorine level in a sodium hypochlorite solution. Research on the disinfestation strength and phytotoxicity risk of chlorine compounds is needed, because control of waterborne pathogens has been based on response to free chlorine, whereas dual injection of fertilizer and chlorine is a common horticultural practice. Free chlorine from sodium hypochlorite was applied at 2.6 mg·L−1 chlorine (Cl) to deionized water only (control) or deionized water with 11 nutrient solutions at 200 mg·L−1 nitrogen (N). Nutrient solutions included reagent-grade ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), potassium nitrate (KNO3), and urea salts and seven commercial blended N–P–K water-soluble fertilizers that contained both macro- and micronutrients. Commercial fertilizers contained ammonium-N at 0% to 50% of total-N, urea-N at 0% to 14% of total-N, and nitrate-N at 50% to 93% of total-N. Free Cl (mg·L−1), total Cl (mg·L−1), and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP, in mV) were measured 2 min and 60 min after Cl was applied. Combined Cl was calculated as the difference between the total and free Cl measurements. All solutions were maintained at pH 6 and 25 °C. In the control solution, free Cl was 2.6 mg·L−1 after 2 minutes and decreased to 2.2 mg·L−1 after 60 minutes. The ammonium-containing solutions (NH4)2SO4 and NH4NO3 resulted in free Cl below 0.1 mg·L−1 after 2 minutes. Urea reacted more slowly than ammonium salts, whereby free Cl decreased to 2.3 mg·L−1 after 2 minutes and 0.4 mg·L−1 after 60 minutes. In contrast, KNO3 had less impact on free Cl with 2.4 mg·L−1 free Cl available at both 2 minutes and 60 minutes. With all commercial fertilizers tested, free Cl decreased after 2 minutes to below 0.1 mg·L−1. Total Cl remained above 2 mg·L−1 after 60 minutes in all treatments, indicating that the majority of Cl was in a combined form for ammonium and urea salts and commercial fertilizers. The ORP of commercial fertilizer blends and ammonium-containing salts was lower than 600 mV, whereas deionized water, KNO3, and urea treatments had ORP levels above 650 mV. Nutrient solutions containing ammonium or urea required 20 mg·L−1 or more of applied Cl to provide residual free Cl above 2 mg·L−1 at 2 minutes.
Paul R. Fisher and Royal D. Heins
A methodology based on process-control approaches used in industrial production is introduced to control the height of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima L.). Graphical control charts of actual vs. target process data are intuitive and easy to use, rapidly identify trends, and provide a guideline to growers. Target reference values in the poinsettia height control chart accommodate the biological and industrial constraints of a stemelongation model and market specifications, respectively. A control algorithm (proportional-derivative control) provides a link between the control chart and a knowledge-based or expert computer system. A knowledge-based system can be used to encapsulate research information and production expertise and provide management recommendations to growers.
Caroline S. Donnelly and Paul R. Fisher
The objective was to quantify the effect of supplemental lighting on cutting production for 10 herbaceous annual cultivars. Stock plants of four cultivars (Heliotropium arborescens `Atlantis', Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola aemula `New Wonder', and Verbena `Tapien Soft Pink') received ambient light [average 6.2 mol·m-2·d-1 photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) during the photoperiod], or ambient light plus either 1.6 or 2.8 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps for 11 hours. In a second experiment, the same four species plus six other cultivars were grown under ambient light (average 7.9 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF) or ambient plus 1.9 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS. The effect of HPS on the production of cuttings varied greatly between species. Growth of Heliotropium was not significantly affected by light level in either experiment. In the first experiment, the addition of 1.6 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS increased the number of Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola, and Verbena cuttings by 14%, 51%, and 12%. The addition of 2.8 mol·m-2·d-1 PPF from HPS, increased cuttings harvested from these three species by 23%, 73%, and 22% respectively. In the second experiment, Petunia `Supertunia Sun Snow', Scaevola, Aloysia triphylla (lemon verbena), and Osteospermum `Lemon Symphony' had a positive cutting production response to HPS (17% to 45% increase), whereas cutting numbers of other species (Argyranthemum `Summer Melody', Lantana `Patriot Firewagon', Impatiens New Guinea hybrid `Pedro', Petunia `Supertunia Blue Wren', and Verbena) were not significantly affected by HPS. In both experiments, cutting quality (length, stem caliper, fresh mass, and dry mass) and subsequent rooting of cuttings were not significantly affected by light level.
Ryan W. Dickson and Paul R. Fisher
Objectives were 1) to quantify acidic and basic effects on the root zone pH for eight vegetable and herb species grown in peat-based substrate and hydroponic nutrient solution and 2) to determine the applied NH4 +:NO3 – ratio expected to have a neutral pH reaction for each species during its vegetative growth phase. In one experiment, plants were grown for 33 days in substrate (70% peat:30% perlite by volume), and were fertilized with a nutrient solution containing 7.14 milli-equivalents (mEq)·L–1 N and NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 40:60. During the second experiment, the same species were grown in hydroponic nutrient solutions at 7.14 mEq·L–1 N with NH4 +:NO3 – ratios ranging from 0:100 to 30:70, and data were collected over a 6-day period. In substrate, species increased root zone pH when supplied 0:100 solution, except for cucumber, which did not change substrate pH. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio to 40:60 increased acidity and decreased pH across species. Similar trends were observed in hydroponics, in which the most basic response occurred across species with 0:100, and the most acidic response occurred with 30:70. Arugula was the only species that increased root zone pH with all three NH4 +:NO3 – ratios in substrate and hydroponics. In substrate and hydroponics, mEq of acidity (negative) or basicity (positive) produced per gram dry weight gain per plant (mEq·g−1) correlated positively with mEq·g−1 net cation minus anion uptake, respectively, in which greater cation uptake resulted in acidity and greater anion uptake resulted in basicity. In hydroponics, the greatest net anion uptake occurred with 0:100, and increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio increased total cation uptake across species. Cucumber had the most acidic effect and required less than 10% of N as NH4 +-N for a neutral pH over time, arugula was the most basic and required more than 20% NH4 +-N, and the remaining species had neutral percent NH4 +-N between 10% and 20% of N. Increasing the NH4 +:NO3 – ratio decreased Ca2+ uptake across all species in hydroponics, which could potentially impact tip burn and postharvest quality negatively. Controlling root zone pH in substrate and hydroponic culture requires regular pH monitoring in combination with NH4 +:NO3 – adjustments and other pH management strategies, such as injecting mineral acid to neutralize irrigation water alkalinity or adjusting the limestone incorporation rate for substrate.
Brandon R. Smith, Paul. R. Fisher and William R. Argo
The objective was to quantify the effect of substrate pH and micronutrient concentration on growth and pigment content for two floricultural crop species, Petunia ×hybrida `Priscilla' and Impatiens wallerana `Rosebud Purple Magic'. A 70% peat: 30% perlite medium was amended with dolomitic hydrated lime to achieve five substrate pH's ranging from pH 4.4 to 7.0. Plants were grown in 10-cm-diameter pots in a greenhouse for 4 weeks, and irrigated with a fertilizer containing (in mg·L-1) 210N-31P-235K-200Ca-49Mg. Micronutrients were applied using an EDTA (ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid) chelated micronutrient blend (C111), at 1×, 2×, and 4× concentrations (in mg·L-1) of 0.50Fe-0.25Mn-0.025Zn-0.04Cu-0.075B-0.01Mo. Petunia shoot dry mass and stem caliper decreased as substrate pH increased, whereas leaf length and width remained unchanged. The highest level of C111 resulted in higher dry mass and smaller leaf area compared with other C111 levels. Overall, substrate pH and C111 had little effect on plant size or mass for impatiens. For both species, increasing substrate pH above 5.3 resulted in a decline in chlorophyll, carotenoids, and the SPAD chlorophyll index (measured with a Minolta-502 SPAD meter) compared with the lowest three pH levels. Chlorosis was observed at pH 7 after 2 weeks of growth. Increasing C111 concentration had no effect on pigment content below pH 5.3, but increased pigment content at higher pH levels. The SPAD index was highly correlated with chlorophyll content. This research emphasizes that an acceptable range in substrate pH can vary depending on fertilizer practices, with higher micronutrient concentration compensating for lower solubility at high substrate pH.
Brandon R. Smith, Paul. R. Fisher and William R. Argo
The objective was to quantify the effect of substrate pH and micronutrient concentration on tissue nutrient levels in Petunia ×hybrida Hort. Vilm.-Andr. and Impatiens wallerana Hook. F. Plants were grown in 10-cm-diameter pots for 4 weeks in a 70% peat: 30% perlite medium amended with five lime rates to achieve substrate pH values ranging from pH 4.4 to 7.0. Plants were irrigated with (in mg·L-1) 210N-31P-235K-200Ca-49Mg. Micronutrients were applied as an EDTA (ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid) chelated micronutrient blend (C111), at 1×, 2×, and 4× concentrations of 0.50Fe-0.25Mn-0.025Zn-0.04Cu-0.075B-0.01Mo. Patterns of tissue concentrations across substrate pH differed from nutrient solubility in the medium, particularly with regard to Mn. Foliar N content decreased slightly as substrate pH increased, whereas foliar Ca, Mg, and S increased. Although foliar P and K varied with pH, there was no consistent trend between species. Foliar total Fe, ferrous Fe, and Cu decreased as substrate pH increased, whereas foliar Zn increased. Foliar Mn content decreased for both species as pH rose to 6.0, and then increased from pH 6.0 to 7.0. In contrast, Mn level in the substrate, measured in a saturated medium extract using deionized water as the extractant, decreased as pH increased from pH 4.4 to 7.0. Chlorophyll content decreased when the ratio of tissue Fe to Mn was <0.57 (impatiens) or <0.71 (petunia), or Fe was <106 (impatiens) or 112 (petunia) μg·g-1. SPAD chlorophyll index also declined in petunia with foliar Mn >42 μg·g-1. Increasing C111 increased foliar Cu, total Fe and ferrous Fe in both species, and B for impatiens, and partly compensated for reduced nutrient solubility at high pH.
Paul R. Fisher, William R. Argo and John A. Biernbaum
Two experiments were run to validate a “Nitrogen Calcium Carbonate Equivalence (CCE)” model that predicts potential fertilizer basicity or acidity based on nitrogen (N) form and concentration for floriculture crops grown with water-soluble fertilizer in containers with minimal leaching. In one experiment, nine bedding plant species were grown for 28 days in a peat-based substrate using one of three nutrient solutions (FS) composed of three commercially available water-soluble fertilizers that varied in ammonium to nitrate (NH4 +:NO3 –) ratio (40:60, 25:75, or 4:96) mixed with well water with 130 mg·L−1 calcium carbonate (CaCO3) alkalinity. Both the ammonium-nitrogen (NH4-N) content of the FS and plant species affected substrate pH. Predicted acidity or basicity of the FS for Impatiens walleriana Hook.f. (impatiens), Petunia ×hybrida E. Vilm. (petunia), and Pelargonium hortorum L.H. Bailey (pelargonium) from the Nitrogen CCE model was similar to observed pH change with an adjusted R 2 of 0.849. In a second experiment, water alkalinity (0 or 135.5 mg·L−1 CaCO3), NH4 +:NO3 – ratio (75:25 or 3:97), and N concentration (50, 100, or 200 mg·L−1 N) in the FS were varied with impatiens. As predicted by the N CCE model, substrate pH decreased as NH4 + concentration increased and alkalinity decreased with an adjusted R 2 of 0.763. Results provide confidence in the N CCE model as a tool for fertilizer selection to maintain stable substrate pH over time. The limited scope of these experiments emphasizes the need for more research on plant species effects on substrate pH and interactions with other factors such as residual limestone and substrate components to predict pH dynamics of containerized plants over time.
Paul R. Fisher, Jinsheng Huang and William R. Argo
Limestone is incorporated into horticultural substrates to neutralize substrate acidity, increase pH buffering capacity, and provide calcium and magnesium. Limestones differ in their rate of pH change, equilibrium pH, and proportion of unreacted “residual”? lime. In horticulture, lime reactivity is currently measured empirically in batch tests, whereby limestone is incorporated into a batch of substrate and pH change is measured over time. Our objective was to develop a quantitative model to describe reaction of lime over time. The lime reaction model predicts the substrate-pH based on lime acid neutralizing capacity, lime type (calcitic, dolomitic, or hydrated), lime particle size distribution, application concentration, and the non-limed pH and neutralizing requirement (buffering) of the substrate. Residual lime is calculated as the proportion of lime remaining following gradual neutralization of the substrate acidity (by subtraction of reacted lime from total applied lime).
Jinsheng Huang, Paul R. Fisher and William R. Argo
The objective was to develop indices to describe reactivity of different lime particle size fractions with respect to pH change in horticultural substrates. Particle size efficiency (PSE) was calibrated from pH responses for separated six lime particle size fractions (>850, 850 to 250, 250 to 150, 150 to 75, 75 to 45, and <45 μm) from three calcitic limes, and seven dolomitic limes, based on their increase in substrate pH relative to reagent grade CaCO3 when mixed in a sphagnum peat substrate at 5 g CaCO3 equivalents per liter of peat. The fineness factor (FF) was calculated for a liming material by summing the percentages by weight in each of the six size fractions multiplied by the appropriate PSE. The effective calcium carbonate equivalence (ECC) of a limestone was the product of the FF and the acid neutralizing value (NV) in CaCO3 equivalents. Reliability of the parameters for FF and ECC were then validated in two experiments, using 29 unscreened carbonate and hydrated lime sources, including the 10 calibration limes. In one experiment, 1 L of peat was blended at 5 g of lime (i.e., not corrected for differences in NV between limes). In the second experiment, 5 g CaCO3 equivalents for each lime, corrected for NV, were blended with 1 L of peat (a different peat source), using the same 29 lime sources. Both FF and ECC were positively correlated with the corresponding substrate-pH changes, with P < 0.001 and r 2 from 0.87 to 0.93. This calibration of PSE, FF, and ECC can improve limestone selection and application rate for the short term response and fine limestone sources used in horticulture.