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Paul R. Fantz

Liriopogons (Liriope, Ophiopogon) are versatile landscape plants with a complexity of taxonomic problems. A taxonomic revision of liriopogons cultivated in the United States is needed; one that includes an inventory of taxa, quantitative descriptions of species and cultivars, keys and other aids for segregation and identification of taxa, documentation of taxa with vouchers deposited in herbaria, and establishment of a living germplasm collection that can serve as a standard for the nursery/landscape industries.

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Paul R. Fantz

A taxonomic revision of liriopogons (Liriope Lour., Ophiopogon Ker-Gawl) cultivated in the United States is in progress at North Carolina State Univ. Germplasm was obtained from nurseries, botanical gardens/arboreta, and private collectors. Nearly 17% of the germplasm was misidentified to genus; nearly 36% misidentified to species; and nearly 14% received under one name from one source contained mixed germplasm. Preliminary analysis of data indicate a minimum of five species of Liriope and eight species of Ophio-pogon are in cultivation. Six additional taxa have not flowered. Polygonal graph analysis was used to visualize biometrical data and observe relationships among taxa. Additional taxonomic publications for segregation of genera and species of liriopogons, including an inventory of taxa, quantitative descriptions, illustrations, and keys, are in progress.

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Paul R. Fantz

Revised treatments of the genera Centrosema (DC.) Benth. (Leguminosae: Fabaceae) and Clitoris L. follow the style used in Hortus Third. Inventory of species, nomenclature, authorities, morphological descriptions, and distributions have been updated.

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Paul R. Fantz

Liriopogons (Liriope Lour. spp. and Ophiopogon Ker-Gawl. spp.) are versatile landscape plants with a complexity of taxonomic problems, including the question of whether they are segregate genera or only one genus. Macrophytography (descriptive terminology of morphology) of the liriopogons is described with commentary on patterns of variation and reliable characters for segregation. Liriopogons were found to include two valid genera, delineated and described, and two imposters marketed as liriopogons. Liriope species bear spreading to upright rotate flowers with zygomorphic stamens, of which the filaments are sigmoid, the anthers oblong and poricidal dehiscent, and the style is incurved-falcate. Ophiopogon species bear nodding campanulate flowers with actinomorphic stamens, of which the filaments are subsessile and straight, the anthers sagittate and longitudinally dehiscent, and the style is straight. The imposters are nonvalid liriopogons, and include species of sedges and grasses misidentified as liriopogons. Included are a key to delineation of taxa and a table of taxonomic terminology used in this study for describing liriopogon taxa.

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Paul R. Fantz

Species of Liriope Lour. are versatile, evergreen, grass-like perennials used in many landscaping situations. The industry commonly recognizes two species, L. muscari (Decne.) L.H. Bailey and L. spicata Lour. Additional species are poorly known in the green industry, and include misidentified species of Ophiopogon Ker-Gawl. A taxonomic treatment of liriopogons cultivated in the southeastern United States has been in progress for nearly 15 years. Plants bearing the names of L. kansuensis C.H. Wright belonged to the genus Ophiopogon. Plants bearing the name L. graminifolia Baker were misidentified as Ophiopogon sp. or belonged to L. spicata. One nursery had L. maireii, a species name lacking in plant name indices, and was excluded as a species. The names L. muscari and L. platyphylla F.T. Wang & T. Tang linked recently as synonyms are segregated as two distinct species. Six species of Liriope are delineated and quantitatively described, with a taxonomic key to segregation presented. These species include L. exiliflora (L.H. Bailey) H.H. Hume, L. gigantea H.H. Hume, L. minor (Maxim.) Makino, L. muscari, L. platyphylla, and L. spicata.

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Paul R. Fantz

Species of Ophiopogon Ker-Gawl (aztec grass, monkey grass, mondo grass, and snake's beard) are versatile, evergreen, grass-like perennials used in a variety of landscape situations. The nursery/landscape industry commonly recognizes the Ophiopogon species O. japonicus (Linn. f.) Ker-Gawl and O. plansicapus Nakai, with O. clarkei Hook. f., O. intermedius D. Don, O. graminifolius (L.) Wehrh., O. jaburan (Sieb.) Lodd., O. kansuensis Bat., and O. ohwii Okuyama available, but often misidentified and marketed under other names. Additional taxa are being introduced through botanic gardens and plant expeditions by horticulturists. A taxonomic treatment by the author of liriopogons cultivated in the southeastern United States had been in progress for nearly 15 years. Plants bearing the name O. graminifolius included additional misidentified species of Liriope Lour. and Ophiopogon. Plants bearing the name O. chingii Wang and Chang did not bear inflorescences, but vegetatively appear to be equivalent to O. graminifolius. Plants bearing the name O. mairei H. Lév. and O. wallichianus (Kunth) J.D. Hook. were misidentified as Liriope exiliflora (L.H. Bailey) H.H. Hume. Additional taxa available in botanic gardens included O. bockianus Diels., O. bodnieri H. Lév., O. checkiangensis Koiti Kimura and Migo, O. chingii, and O. marmoratus Pierre ex L. Rodr. Plants bearing the name O. parviflorus (Hook. f.) Hara died without producing reproductive structures; thus, identification to even genus was unattainable. Ophiopogon arabicus Hort., O. nigra Hort., and O. nigrescens Hort. were invalid names used in the trade for O. planiscapus. This treatment includes original morphological descriptions from data obtained in the study, observational notes, and a table with a key to segregation of taxa.

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Paul R. Fantz and Paul Nelson

Tahitian bridal veil traditionally has been assigned the scientific name of Tradescentia multiflora (or Tradescentia multifoila in the floricultural industry. Hortus Third lacks the name Tahitian bridal veil. Other references also lack this vernacular name or assign this plant either to Tripogandra or Gibasis as G. geniculata or G. pellucida. Thus, modern literature references suggest three potential scientific names. Plants of Tahitian bridal veil were examined morphologically. A description was prepared and compared to literature descriptions of the taxa involved. Results indicated that Tahitian bridal veil was misidentified at least twice by earlier authors and that the correct name for Tahitian bridal veil is G. pellucida.

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Paul R. Fantz and Paul Woody

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Paul R. Fantz and Donglin Zhang

Horticultural Science in the past quarter of a century has been shifting to increased emphasis on ornamental plants due to the growth of the modern green industry. Numerous species are being introduced into the exterior and interior landscapes. For popular species, the cultivar, as defined by the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (ICNCP), has become the basic taxon of cultivated plants. Named ornamental plant cultivars are rising at a rapid rate creating identification and segregation problems in the landscape industry, nurseries, botanic gardens, arboreta, and breeding programs. Government regulations and legal issues are beginning to infringe as solutions to the problems. There is a critical need existing for taxonomic research on ornamental cultivars utilizing classical morphological analysis supplemented with modern biotechnological techniques (e.g., anatomical, chemical, cytological, DNA, Sem analysis). Taxonomic research on existing and newer cultivars can provide quantitative botanical descriptions, keys of segregation, correct identification, determination of correct names and synonymy, improved cultivar documentation, and grouping of similar cultivars in large complexes. The taxonomic research is basic science that has immediate applied application within the horticultural society, and results should be published in the journals of ASHS.