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Paul E. Read

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Paul E. Read

Abstract

The influence of the stock plant (mother plant, donor plant) has long been known to exert a profound effect on subsequent propagation capability of its propagules. Both treatments applied to the stock plant and the environment under which the stock plant is grown have a strong influence on subsequent propagation. These effects may include an increase in size or number of cuttings and improved root regeneration by cuttings taken from such stock plants. Nutrition, light, temperature, genotype, plant growth regulator applications, physical manipulations, and season of the year have all been reported to influence macropropagation efforts. Similarly, the influence of these same factors often has been reported to have a strong effect on the performance of propagated explants taken from stock plants so treated. From the early work of Kraus and Kraybill (18) in 1918, we can see that the carbohydrate: nitrogen ratio was shown to be an important factor in the rooting of tomato cuttings. Micronutrition of stock plants also has been given some attention, as exemplified by the work of Weiser and Blaney (25). Dhillon (5) also has pointed out that nutrient effects often are modified by light. Reduced light intensity has been reported to enhance the rooting of dahlia, forsythia, and weigelia (3, 19). Etiolation, or extreme light reduction, frequently has been reported to also improve rooting (9. 17). Other authors have reported that reduced stock plant light intensities can lead to better rooting of the cuttings of several species (1, 11, 21). Increases in endogenous auxin level generally are believed to occur under reduced light, thus enhancing rooting (20). Whally (26) has reviewed literature on photoperiod effects on rooting of numerous ornamental species. Keeping stock plants in a vegetative condition by the use of night interruption or day extension has enabled researchers to provide a continuous supply of cuttings (14, 15, 24). Bachelard and Stowe (2) and von Hentig (16) have reported direct effects of stock plant photoperiod on the rooting of cuttings.

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Paul E. Read

Abstract

Good horticultural educators are indeed a rare breed, based on the dearth of publications cited under “Education” in Hort-Science indexes. The data presented in Tables 1 and 2 are cause for serious concern in my opinion. Furthermore, the picture becomes even more dismal when the figures are examined closely.

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Guochen Yang and Paul E. Read

A certain period of cold is needed to break bud dormancy for almost all woody species. A pre-forcing bleach soak has been demonstrated to at least partially replace this requirement (Yang and Read, 1989). Therefore, new softwood growth can be produced in the off-season. Such supple softwood growth is excellent material to be used either as explants for in vitro culture, or as cuttings for macropropagation of woody species. Further studies on pre-forcing bleach soaks were conducted to investigate optimum concentration and duration of soak, and to find the most suitable depth of bleach solution soak, in order to maximize the breaking of bud dormancy. Optimum bud break was obtained by soaking the basal 1/3 of dormant stems in 10% bleach solution for 10 minutes prior to forcing. Soaking dormant woody stems in alcohol solutions prior to placing stems in the forcing solution was also studied. The alcohol soak had negative effects on bud break of spirea, although it showed positive effects for lilac and privet.

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Margaret From and Paul E. Read

Platanthera praeclara, commonly called western prairie fringed orchid, is a showy forb native to seven states and one Canadian province. The species had resisted previous attempts at propagation. Small, isolated populations in the sandhills region of western Nebraska are disjunct and visitation by natural pollen vectors appears to be in decline. Modern cultivation practices and other habitat encroachment factors, including urban development, recreational activities, and natural fluctuations in seasonal water availability all have the potential to exert pressure on current populations. Federal and state permits have allowed a limited hand-pollination study to be conducted on federal land. Hand-pollinated plants showed a greater fruit production compared to control plants receiving no human pollination assistance. Germination studies were conducted using aseptic in vitro techniques. The microscopic seeds possess testa that are extremely hard and resistant to liquid absorption, which presents challenges to germination in vitro. These challenges will be discussed. Alternating cold treatments with room temperatures appeared necessary to promote protocorm development after germination. Three media tested produced varying germination responses. Juvenile plants produced through micropropagation can offer propagules for possible future reintroduction efforts of this protected species.

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Erika Szendrák and Paul E. Read

The temperate native terrestrial orchids are endangered species. Their propagation from seeds poses specific problems. It is well known that orchid seeds are devoid of endosperm and in nature they need microscopic fungi in a symbiotic relationship for germination. We developed a successful asymbiotic in vitro culture method for germinating seeds of several temperate orchid species and for maintaining the cultures of young plantlets. The medium used for both germination and seedling culture was a modified FAST medium. Seeds were surface-disinfested for 10 minutes in a 10% calcium hypochlorite solution. After sowing, the cultures were kept under dark condition at 10–12°C for 4 weeks. After that the cultures remained in the dark, but the temperature was raised to 25–26°C until germination occurred. Thereafter cultures required alternating seasonal temperatures: 25–26°C from the beginning of April to the end of September and 17–19°C from October to March. For the development of the young plantlets natural dispersed light and prevailing day-length was favorable. After 2 years of aseptic culture they were suitable for transfer ex vitro. Different stages of seed germination and plant development were observed using a scanning electron microscope and will be included in this presentation. Further observation of the effects of different environmental factors is currently under investigation.

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Guochen Yang and Paul E. Read

A forcing solution containing 200 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate per liter and 2% sucrose has enhanced availability of cutting materials by forcing dormant woody stems in the off-season. Anxins, such as IBA, included in the forcing solution promoted subsequent rooting by increasing root number per cutting and root length for privet. Inclusion of IBA in the forcing solution following the initial use of GA3 in the forcing solution counteracted the undesirable effects of GA3 on rooting and stimulated rooting after taking advantage of the favorable effects of GA3 on bud break and shoot elongation. However, the ability of IBA to counteract the negative effects of GA3 on rooting was dependent on the length of GA3 treatment. The modification of forcing solution system by sequentially including GA3 and then replacing GA3 with IBA expedited propagation of privet. Production of candidate cuttings or explants was stimulated by including GA3 in the forcing solution, and rooting of the cuttings was promoted by subsequent auxin or cytokinin inclusions in the forcing solution to replace GA3 This modified forcing solution system also proved to be a successful and efficient model for propagation of other difficult to propagate woody species.

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Guochen Yang and Paul E. Read

A forcing solution containing 200 mg 8-hydroxyquinoline citrate per liter and 2% sucrose has been demonstrated to extend the season for obtaining softwood growth suitable for use as explants in micropropagation (Yang & Read 1989). Forcing dormant woody stems in the off-season in this fashion also enhances the macropropagation of woody plant species by providing softwood outgrowth that can be rooted as softwood cuttings. GA 3 , IBA, IAA and NAA were incorporated into softwood growth which was later used as cuttings for rooting by adding plant growth regulators at various concentrations to the forcing solution. GA 3 incorporated into the forcing solution hastened bud break, increased shoot elongation, but inhibited rooting of softwood cuttings taken from stems forced in this manner. IBA, IAA and NAA in the forcing solution exhibited typical auxin effects on rooting of cuttings by increasing root number per cutting and root elongation. In order to expedite macropropagation of woody plants, GA 3 and IBA were added SEQUENTIALLY to the forcing solution. Addition of IBA to fresh forcing solution following initial use of GA 3 in the forcing solution counteracted the negative effects of GA 3 and stimulated rooting. This protocol is proposed as a method to assist propagation in rooting difficult species by softwood cuttings in the off-season.

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Handan Büyükdemirci and Paul E. Read

Axillary buds of `Valiant' grapevine (Vitis spp.) grown in vitro were transferred onto Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with different cytokinin and auxin combinations and concentrations. It was found that culture medium caused statistically important differences in number of nodes, number of fully expanded leaves, number of multiple shoots, number of roots, and length of shoots. MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg BA/liter in combination with 0.01 mg NAA/L was found to be the best medium for shoot growth and callus production. MS medium supplemented with the combination of 0.5 mg BA/L and 0.01 mg NAA/L was the best medium for explant rooting. The medium containing BA and NAA encouraged better shoot growth than those containing BA alone. When the concentration of BA in the medium was increased, multiple shoot proliferation and teratological structures of explants increased, but the number of small leaves and length of internode decreased. Axillary bud culture led to better shoot growth than was found for shoot apex culture. The presence of leaves positively affected shoot growth from axillary buds. Also placing the axillary buds horizontally onto the medium gave better shoot proliferation and growth than placing them vertically.