Number of days to flower (DTF) of 78 bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes was measured in tropical fields at various elevations. The associated 18 mean temperatures varied between 12 and 28C. Daylength was natural 12 or 13 hours of sunlight with or without incandescent light for a total of 18 hours. A statistical analysis with additive main effects and multiplicative interaction effects (AMMI) quantified the effects on the deviation from the DTF grand mean caused by each genotype, plus those caused by each daylength and by each temperature. The more photoperiod-sensitive the genotype (factor 1), the more a longer daylength (factor 2) increased DTF and the more a higher temperature (factor 3) synergistically increased DTF. These three factors interacted to delay the node to flower. An additional control over DTF occurred as the same higher temperature (factor 3) reduced the days required to develop a node (factor 4). Thus, a higher temperature tended to decrease DTF by enhancing the rate of vegetative development, at the same time that it tended to increase DTF by enhancing the photoperiod gene activity. This four-factor interaction resulted in a U-shaped curve of DTF in response to temperature. The smallest DTF on the U-shaped response was interpreted as occurring when the simultaneous effects of temperature toward earlier and later DTF exactly cancelled. At all temperatures below this optimum for flowering, a change of temperature changed DTF predominantly by altering the days required to develop a node. At all temperatures above the optimum, a change of temperature changed DTF predominantly by altering the photoperiod-gene-caused delay of the node to flower. The optimum temperature for flowering was lowered by higher sensitivity of the genotype to photoperiod and also by longer daylength.
D.H. Wallace, Paul A. Gniffke, P.N. Masaya and R.W. Zobel
Derek W. Barchenger, Robert A. Clark III, Paul A. Gniffke, Dolores R. Ledesma, Shih-wen Lin, Peter Hanson and Sanjeet Kumar
Multilocation trials are important for breeding programs to identify high-yielding, adapted lines for a wide range of environments. In this study, we evaluated yield and yield components (fruit weight, fruit length, and fruit width) as well as days to 50% anthesis and fruit maturity of the 10 chili pepper lines in the International Chili Pepper Nursey 15 (ICPN15) distributed by the World Vegetable Center to interested cooperators worldwide. Performance data of the ICPN15 entries were received from collaborators evaluating the set in seven different environments in five countries (Indonesia, South Korea, Thailand, Taiwan, and Vietnam). Significant genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions were detected for all traits evaluated. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analyses indicated high environmental influence on yield, days to 50% anthesis, and maturity, whereas genotype was the greatest contributor to variability in the market-driven yield components of fruit length, width, and weight. Four lines (ICPN15-4, -5, -7, and -10) were identified as highly stable and could serve as sources of yield and yield component stability in either short fruit market segments (ICPN15-4) or long fruit market segments (ICPN15-5, -7, and -10). We attempted to used publicly available weather data to help in explaining the source of the environmental variability; however, differences between analyzed and observed weather were too different to be useful. This is evidence that weather data should be collected at each testing environment in future studies. This study provides a basis for future studies in the stability of important horticultural traits in pepper, and highlights the need for further work in this area.