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Patrick P. Moore

Cultivated raspberries may include North American red raspberry (Rubus idaeus strigosus Michx), European red raspberry (R. idaeus vulgatus Arrhen.) or black raspberry (R. occidentalis in their pedigrees. Twenty-one raspberry clones were investigated using chloroplast restriction fragment length polymorphisms to determine the cytoplasm type and the amount of cytoplasmic diversity among these selected clones. The raspberry clones were selected representing North American red raspberry, European red raspberry, black raspberry and cultivars with divergent maternal lineages. Total cellular DNA was probed with two 32P-labelled fragments of tomato chloroplast DNA. Probe-restriction enzyme combinations were selected which discriminated between representatives of the two red raspberry subspecies. Raspberry clones were grouped according to the chloroplast restriction fragment patterns. The composition of the groups was compared with their pedigrees.

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Patrick P. Moore

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Patrick P. Moore

Measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter could be a quick way to estimate anthocyanin concentration and reduce waste disposal. Five fresh fruit from each of 134 plots were measured with a Minolta tristimulus colorimeter in 1994. Samples were frozen and anthocyanins extracted with acidified ethanol and measured with a spectrophotometer. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.51. L*, a*, b* and C* were significantly correlated with anthocyanin concentration with r 2 = 0.31, 0.32, 0.42, and 0.34, respectively. In 1995, five fruit from each of 20 plots were measured as before. In 1995, the hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 35. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and a* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.62. In 1995, the same 20 samples were also measured with a colorimeter immediately after thawing. The hue angle and anthocyanin concentration had r 2 = 0.55. A regression equation with hue angle, b* and L* estimated anthocyanin concentration with R 2 = 0.76. It may be possible to estimate anthocyanin concentration by measuring intact fruit with a colorimeter after freezing and thawing the samples.

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Patrick P. Moore

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Patrick P. Moore

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Patrick P. Moore

Plots of 19 clones of strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) were planted in 1996. Fruit of 16 clones were harvested in 1997 and fruit of 11 of the same clones plus three additional clones in 1998. Individual plots were harvested on three or four dates in 1997 and from three to seven dates in 1998. Fruit firmness was determined with a penetrometer at harvest, and additional samples were processed and frozen for subsequent determination of percentage of drained weight. Clones differed in firmness in both years and in drained weight in 1998, but not in 1997. Drained weight varied considerably from harvest-to-harvest. Correlations between firmness and drained weight were significant (P ≤ 0.01) in both years, but firmness was not a good predictor of drained weight. The correlation between drained weight of fruits in 1997 and those of fruits from the same plots in 1998 was nonsignificant, but that between firmness in 1997 and firmness in 1998 was significant at P ≤ 0.05.

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Patrick P. Moore

Strawberry fruit of 16 clones was harvested from 45 plots in 1997. Fruit from 35 plots, 12 of the clones sampled in 1997 plus four additional clones, was harvested in 1998. Fruit was harvested on three to five dates in 1997 and three to seven dates in 1998 with 160 samples in 1997 and 165 samples in 1998. Fruit firmness was determined for five fruit from each plot at each harvest with a penetrometer and fruit from the same harvest was sliced, sugared, and frozen. Drip loss was determined later for the frozen, sliced samples. There were statistically significant correlations between firmness and drip-loss (r = -0.27, n = 160, P < 0.01 in 1997 and r = -0.44, n = 165, P < 0.001 in 1998); however, firmness did not adequately predict drip-loss. There was considerable variation in drip loss from harvest to harvest, which was associated with weather conditions or precipitation/irrigation. The drip loss in 1997 was not significantly correlated with the drip loss for the same plots in 1998 (r = -0.26, n = 24, ns); however there was a significant correlation between firmness in 1997 and 1998 (r = 0.52, n = 24, P < 0.05). These findings have implications for evaluation of fruit in a strawberry breeding program for a processing industry.

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Patrick P. Moore

Harvest data from the first and second harvest seasons were compared for 264 plots in six red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) plantings established from 1987 to 1992 to determine year-to-year consistency of harvest data. Midpoint of harvest had the largest correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, n = 264), followed by fruit mass (r = 0.76) and fruit firmness (r = 0.47). The relationship between the first and second harvest seasons was weaker for yield (r = 0.33) and percent fruit rot (r = 0.24). Basing the correlation coefficients on genotype means did not greatly improve the consistency of data. Inconsistency of harvest data suggests that selections should not be discarded because of low yields after a single harvest season but should be evaluated for at least 2 years.