The purpose of the present study was to investigate the suitability of different soilless substrates for container production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). Young plants of ‘Snowchaser’ blueberry were grown in 4.4-L pots filled with media containing 10% perlite and varying proportions of sphagnum moss, coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) coir, and douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. (Franco)] bark, as well as a commercially available mix of peatmoss, perlite, and other ingredients for comparison. Total plant dry weight (DW) was similar among the treatments at 72 days after transplanting, but at 128 days, total DW was nearly twice as much in the commercial mix and in media with ≥60% peat or coir than in media with ≥60% bark. Inadequate irrigation likely played a role in poor plant growth in bark. Bark had lower porosity and water holding capacity than peat, coir, or the commercial mix and, therefore, dried quickly between irrigations. Bark also reduced plant uptake efficiency of a number of nutrients, including N, P, K, S, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, Cu, and Zn. Uptake efficiency of P, K, and Mg also differed between plants grown in peat and coir, which in most cases was a function of the initial concentration of nutrients in the media. Before planting, peat had the highest concentration of Mg and Fe among the media, whereas coir had the highest concentration of P and K. Leachate pH was initially lowest with peat and highest with coir but was similar among each of the media treatments by the end of the study. Electrical conductivity (EC) of leachate never exceeded 0.84 dS·m−1 in any treatment. Overall, peat and coir appear to be good substrates for container production of highbush blueberry. Bark, on the other hand, was less suitable, particularly when it exceeded 30% of the total media composition.
Patrick H. Kingston, Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine Strik
Patrick H. Kingston, Carolyn F. Scagel, David R. Bryla, and Bernadine C. Strik
Peat and coir are commonly used for substrate production of highbush blueberry (Vaccinium sp.). Perlite is also typically added to improve drainage and stability of the media. The purpose of the present study was to determine how various combinations of each affect growth and nutrition in highbush blueberry. Two cultivars, ‘Liberty’ northern highbush blueberry (V. corymbosum L.) and ‘Jewel’ southern highbush blueberry (interspecific hybrid of V. corymbosum L. and V. darrowii Camp.), were grown for 3 months in media containing 0%, 10%, 20%, or 30% perlite, by volume, and a 1:0, 2:1, 1:2, or 0:1 ratio of peat and coir. At 95 days after transplanting, total dry weight of the ‘Liberty’ plants was greatest in pure peat and progressively less as more coir or perlite was added to the media. Total dry weight of ‘Jewel’ also declined with increasing amounts of perlite but, in this case, was unaffected by the ratio of peat and coir. The response of the plants to perlite did not appear to be a function of pH or nutrition and was most likely related to the effects of perlite on media water relations. Response to peat and coir, on the other hand, may have been due to nutrition and salinity of the media. In both cultivars, a higher amount of peat in the media improved uptake of N, P, Mg, and S and decreased uptake of K, B, Zn, and Na. Coir, on the other hand, contained higher concentrations of Na and Cl than peat. These findings suggest that the use of high amounts of perlite in the media could be detrimental when growing highbush blueberry in substrate, and some cultivars may grow better in peat than in coir.