Elevated CO2 may contribute toward plant tolerance to prolonged drought stress. The objective of this study was to investigate changes in protein abundance associated with mitigation of drought stress by elevated CO2 in leaves of a cool-season grass species used as fine turfgrass. Plants of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera cv. Penncross) were grown at either ambient CO2 concentration (400 µL·L−1) or elevated CO2 concentration (800 µL·L−1) for 35 days under well-irrigated and fertilized conditions and then subjected to drought stress for 21 days by withholding irrigation. Plants exposed to elevated CO2 concentration maintained higher leaf water content, membrane stability, and visual turf quality (TQ) under drought stress compared with plants grown under ambient CO2 conditions. The abundance of proteins involved in photosynthetic carbon fixation and assimilation, including chloroplastic glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase A (GAPDH-A) and ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) decreased less and the abundance of proteins involved in respiratory metabolism (i.e., cytosolic GAPDH) increased less during drought due to elevated CO2. The results suggest that elevated CO2 lessened growth and physiological damages during drought by facilitating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate regeneration and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production in photosynthesis and downregulating factors contributing to respiratory metabolism.
Patrick Burgess and Bingru Huang
Yali Song, Patrick Burgess, Hairong Han and Bingru Huang
Turfgrass growth and physiological activities are sensitive to temperatures and are affected by mowing height. Increasing temperatures associated with global climate change may limit photosynthetic capacity of established turfgrass stands. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mowing height on carbon exchange of a turfgrass system and consequential effects on turfgrass growth in response to temperature variations across the growing season in kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis cv. Baron) stands. Mature (8 years old) turfgrass was mowed at 7.6 cm [high mowing height (HM)] or 3.8 cm [low mowing height (LM)] during 2012 and 2013. Both LM and HM plots displayed significant decline in turf quality (TQ), shoot biomass, and canopy photosynthetic rate (Pn) with increasing air temperature above 23–24 °C in both years and the decline was more pronounced for LM plots. Turf plots were carbon emitters when total respiration rate of shoots, roots, and soil (Rtotal) exceeded canopy Pn under high temperatures during July–September but maintained net carbon gain during cooler seasons (May and June) due to greater Pn to Rtotal ratio (Pn:Rtotal). Lowering mowing height accelerated carbon loss by reducing canopy Pn, particularly under high temperatures. Our results suggested that whether mature turfgrass stands fix or emit carbon is heavily dependent on interaction between seasonal temperatures and mowing height gauging whole-stand photosynthetic capacity. Furthermore, increasing mowing height during summer months may offset the deleterious effects of high temperature by maintaining positive carbon balance within the turfgrass system.
Jinyu Wang, Patrick Burgess, Stacy A. Bonos, William A. Meyer and Bingru Huang
Summer decline is typically characterized by heat and drought stress and is a major concern for fine fescue species (Festuca). The objectives of this study were to examine whether heat or drought stress is more detrimental, and to determine the genotypic variations in heat and drought tolerance for fine fescues. A total of 26 cultivars, including seven hard fescues (Festuca trachyphylla), eight chewings fescues (Festuca rubra ssp. commutate), seven strong creeping red fescues (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra), two sheep fescues (Festuca ovina ssp. hirtula), and two slender creeping red fescues (Festuca rubra ssp. littoralis) were subjected to prolonged heat or drought stress in growth chambers. Several physiological parameters, including turf quality (TQ), electrolyte leakage (EL), photochemical efficiency (F v/F m) chlorophyll content (Chl), and relative water content (RWC) were measured in plants exposed to heat or drought stress. The results indicated that heat stress was more detrimental than drought stress for fine fescue species. Based on TQ and major physiological parameters (EL and F v/F m) under heat stress, several cultivars with good heat tolerance were selected, including ‘Blue Ray’, ‘Spartan II’, ‘MN-HD1’, ‘Shoreline’, ‘Navigator II’, ‘Azure’, ‘Beacon’, ‘Aurora Gold’, ‘Reliant IV’, ‘Marco Polo’, ‘Garnet’, ‘Wendy Jean’, ‘Razor’, and ‘Cindy Lou’. Based on TQ and major physiological parameters (EL, RWC, and F v/F m) under drought stress, several cultivars with good drought tolerance were selected, including ‘Spartan II’, ‘MN-HD1’, ‘Reliant IV’, ‘Garnet’, ‘Azure’, and ‘Aurora Gold’. These cultivars could be used in hot, dry, or both environments and as breeding germplasm for developing heat tolerance, drought tolerance, or both.