The various disease syndromes caused by Phytopthora capsici Leonian can be devastating to squash (Cucurbita spp.) production areas of the United States. In some growing seasons, yield loss has been reported up to 100%. A recently developed University of Florida Cucurbita breeding line, #394-1-27-12, resistant to the crown rot syndrome of P. capsici, was used to determine the inheritance of resistance to this disease. Data from F1, F2, and backcross progeny from crosses of a P. capsici-susceptible butternut-type winter squash (C. moschata) with #394-1-27-12 indicated that resistance is conferred by three dominant genes. The introgression of P. capsici crown rot resistance from #394-1-27-12 into morphologically diverse domesticates within Cucurbita will aid in the management of this economically important pathogen.
Les D. Padley Jr, Eileen A. Kabelka and Pamela D. Roberts
Les D. Padley Jr, Eileen A. Kabelka, Pamela D. Roberts and Ronald French
Phytophthora capsici causes several disease syndromes on Cucurbita pepo L. (squash, pumpkin, and gourd), including crown rot, foliar blight, and fruit rot, which can lead up to 100% crop loss. Currently, there are no C. pepo cultivars resistant or tolerant to this pathogen, which can aid in disease management strategies. The objective of this study was to evaluate a select group of C. pepo accessions for resistance to the crown rot syndrome of P. capsici. One hundred fifteen C. pepo accessions, from 24 countries, were evaluated for their disease response to inoculation with a suspension of three highly virulent P. capsici isolates from Florida. Replications of each accession, including susceptible controls, were planted in the greenhouse using a randomized complete block design. At the second to third true leaf stage, each seedling was inoculated at their crown with a 5-mL P. capsici suspension of 2 × 104 zoospores/mL. Fourteen days after inoculation, the plants were visually rated on a scale ranging from 0 (no symptoms) to 5 (plant death). Mean disease rating scores (DRS) and sds were calculated for each accession and ranged from 1.3 to 5.0 and 0 to 2.0, respectively. Eight accessions with the lowest mean DRS were rescreened. Results paralleled those of the initial study with one accession, PI 181761, exhibiting the lowest mean DRS at 0.5. Further screening and selection of accessions from the C. pepo germplasm collection should aid in the development of breeding lines and cultivars with resistance to crown rot caused by P. capsici.
Jiaqi Yan, Megan M. Dewdney, Pamela D. Roberts and Mark A. Ritenour
Citrus black spot (CBS), caused by Guignardia citricarpa, is a fungal disease that was first described in Australia in the 1890s and has since been discovered in Southwest Florida in 2010. The current study evaluated the effects of hot water treatments on mycelial growth of G. citricarpa in vitro and also evaluated postharvest hot-water dips and fungicide treatments on CBS development on ‘Valencia’ oranges. In vitro exposure to 56 °C for 120 seconds, 59 °C for 60 seconds, or 62 °C for 30 seconds suppressed mycelial growth of all three G. citricarpa isolates by >30%. These treatments did not significantly reduce disease incidence or severity of CBS lesion development on whole ‘Valencia’ oranges from CBS-infected trees when the fruit already had visible CBS symptoms before treatment. On asymptomatic fruit, while the treatments did not significantly reduce the incidence of CBS lesion development, fruit dipped in 56 °C water for 120 seconds significantly reduced disease severity after 2 weeks of storage compared with the control. None of the treatments caused peel scalding or fruit quality deterioration. Postharvest application of azoxystrobin, imazalil, or thiabendazole significantly reduced CBS disease severity on fruit that were asymptomatic at harvest, but did not affect disease incidence. These fungicides were not effective on fruit harvested later in the season (April), possibly because most lesion expression had already occurred before harvest, with little left to develop after harvest. On fruit showing CBS symptoms at harvest, postharvest fungicide treatments did not significantly affect disease incidence or severity after storage. Heating the fungicide solutions did not significantly improve fungicide effectiveness. These results demonstrated that fungicide azoxystrobin, imazalil, or thiabendazole could reduce CBS severity, but not incidence, on orange fruit that are still asymptomatic at harvest.
Charles S. Vavrina, Pamela D. Roberts, Nancy Kokalis-Burelle and Esa O. Ontermaa
Six greenhouse trials of five commercial products marketed as systemic resistance (SR) and plant growth promotion (PGP) inducers were evaluated on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) over a 21-month period. The effect of the inducers on treated plants was measured by monitoring plant growth and disease suppression after inoculation with either plant pathogenic bacteria or nematodes. The commercially available SR/PGP inducers included a bacterial suspension [Companion (Bacillus subtilis GB03)], two plant defense elicitors with nutrients (Keyplex 350DP plus Nutri-Phite, and Rezist with Cab'y), natural plant extracts (Liquid Seaweed Concentrate and Stimplex), and a synthetic growth regulator (Actigard 50W). Growth enhancement was noted in some trials, but the parameter of growth affected often varied with trial. Response to Actigard treatment included significant suppression of bacterial spot [Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv)] in three of the six trials. Companion, Keyplex 350DP plus Nutri-Phite, Rezist and Cab'y, and seaweed products induced only partial disease suppression of bacterial spot in inoculated tomato plants. The alpha-keto acids plus nutrients (Keyplex 350DP plus Nutri-Phite) increased plant growth by 14.3% and improved root condition compared to the untreated control following exposure to nematodes. Results are encouraging, if not consistent, and with a greater understanding of the SR system and the conditions related to product efficacy, such materials may become effective tools for production agriculture.
Chandrasekar S. Kousik, Scott Adkins, William W. Turechek, Craig G. Webster and Pamela D. Roberts
Chandrasekar S. Kousik, Scott Adkins, William W. Turechek and Pamela D. Roberts
Watermelon vine decline (WVD) is a new and emerging disease caused by the whitefly-transmitted squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV). The disease has become a major limiting factor in watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai] production in southwest and west–central Florida and is estimated to have caused more than $60 million in losses. Symptoms of WVD typically occur at or just before harvest and are manifested as sudden decline of the vines, often with a reduction in fruit quality. In this study, we present results of greenhouse and field evaluations of U.S. plant introductions (PIs) for resistance to SqVYV. Of the 218 PIs we evaluated for resistance to SqVYV, none were completely immune, but several showed varying levels of resistance and these were further evaluated in two greenhouse and field trials. Disease progress was significantly slower on the selected PIs compared with disease progress on susceptible watermelon cultivars Mickey Lee and Crimson Sweet. Moderate resistance was observed in two C. colocynthis (PI 386015 and PI 386024), a Praecitrullus fistulosus (PI 381749), and two C. lanatus var. lanatus PIs (PI 482266 and PI 392291). Variability in the resistant reaction to SqVYV within most PIs was observed. The identification of potential sources of partial resistance to SqVYV suggests that watermelon germplasm with moderate resistance can be developed by careful screening and selection of individual resistant plants within these PIs for use in breeding programs.
Diana Schultz, Ryan S. Donahoo, Frances G.M. Perez, Sucel Tejeda, Pamela D. Roberts and Kenneth L. Deahl
Late blight, caused by Phytophthora infestans, affects tomatoes and potatoes in Florida during the winter–spring crop season. During the 2005 season, severe late blight epidemics were observed in Florida prompting our survey. Isolates from 2005 to 2007 were characterized phenotypically based on growth on three media, mating type, pathogenicity, and sensitivity to metalaxyl and genotypically based on two isozymes, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), and genomic profiling using the RG57 probe. Isolates collected in this survey were all A2, mtDNA Ia, and either 100/100 (2005), or 100/122 (2006/2007) at the Gpi locus, and homozygous 100 at the Pep locus. Novel genotypes infecting tomato in Florida were observed based on the Gpi locus and RG57 genomic profile. We propose US-20 for the collection of clonal isolates recovered during the 2005 season and US-21 for clones recovered during 2006 and 2007. In addition to these novel genotypes recovered from tomato, one isolate was recovered from potato representing the US-8 clonal lineage. The findings of the survey in south Florida and their implications are presented.
Gary E. Vallad, Kenneth L. Pernezny, Botond Balogh, Aimin Wen, Jose Francisco L. Figueiredo, Jeffrey B. Jones, Timur Momol, Rosa M. Muchovej, Nikol Havranek, Nadia Abdallah, Steve Olson and Pamela D. Roberts
Studies were conducted at three locations in Florida to evaluate the effects of kasugamycin alone, in alternation, or as a tank-mix partner with copper bactericides and other fungicides against bacterial spot of tomato. In greenhouse trials, kasugamycin, formulated as Kasumin® 2L, reduced bacterial spot severity by up to 37.5% compared with a non-treated control. Little advantage in disease control was observed by mixing kasugamycin with other fungicides. Kasugamycin was assessed in six field trials. In the four field trials that tested kasugamycin alone, it was as effective as the standard copper + mancozeb treatment for the control of bacterial spot. In four trials, no benefit was observed in applying kasugamycin as a mixture with copper + mancozeb, and only one of three trials did alternating kasugamycin with copper + mancozeb improve bacterial spot control over either the copper + mancozeb standard or kasugamycin alone. Although kasugamycin was effective for the control of bacterial spot in greenhouse and field trials, rapid development of resistance in field populations of X. perforans may shorten the effective use of this antibiotic.