Heavy P fertilization in the Salinas Valley of California has increased soil P concentration to levels of environmental concern. To determine the correlation of various soil test procedures with P pollution potential from agricultural land in this region, soil was collected from 30 fields, most in long-term vegetable rotations. Soils were analyzed for bicarbonate-extractable P (Pbc), calcium chloride-extractable P (Pcc), bio-available P (Pba, by an anion-resin membrane technique), and %P saturation (Psat, by an enrichment technique). The soils were then exposed to a simulated irrigation event, and soluble P concentration in runoff determined. In a separate experiment the effect of cover cropping on sediment and soluble P concentration in runoff was investigated; containers of six soils were planted with oats (Horteum vulgare L.), and then compared to containers of fallow soil. Pcc, Pba and Psat were all highly correlated (r = 0.86, 0.89 and 0.90, respectively) with Pbc, which ranged from 15-177 mg·kg-1. Soluble P concentration in runoff was highly correlated with all measures of P status (r = 0.98, 0.93, 0.85 and 0.83 for Pcc, Pba, Psat and Pbc, respectively). These results suggest that while Pbc, the standard agronomic measure of soil P status, is a useful indicator of P pollution potential, Pcc (a simple laboratory procedure that could be adapted as an on-farm `quick test' technique) may be superior for that purpose. Across soils, cover cropping reduced soluble P concentration in run-off by 41%, and sediment in the runoff by 85%.
P.R. Johnstone and T.K. Hartz*
P.R. Johnstone and T.K. Hartz*
Heavy P fertilization of vegetable crops in the Salinas Valley of California have increased soil P levels, with > 50 mg·kg-1 bicarbonate-extractable P (Pbc) now common. To evaluate the response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to P fertilization in fields with elevated soil P levels, 12 trials were conducted in commercial fields during 2002-2003. Pbc at the trial sites varied from 53-171 mg·kg-1. In each trial four replicate plots receiving the growers' P application were compared with paired plots in which no P was applied. Leaf P was monitored at cupping stage and at harvest. At harvest mean whole plant mass and % of marketable plants were recorded. The correlation of Pbc to bioavailable P (Pba) was evaluated using 30 representative Salinas Valley soils; Pbc varied among these soils from 15-177 mg·kg-1. Pba was estimated by P adsorption on an anion resin membrane during a 16 h incubation. The effect of temperature on P bioavailability in 6 of these soils was estimated by conducting the Pba incubation at 5, 15 and 25 °C. A significant increase in lettuce yield with P fertilization was achieved at only one trial site, a spring planting where Pbc was 54 mg kg-1 ; at all other sites, including 3 with Pbc < 60 mg kg-1, P application resulted in no agronomic benefit. P application resulted in only a marginal increase in plant P uptake. Pba was highly correlated with Pbc (r = 0.89). Pba increased approximately 40% across soils with each 10 °C increase in soil temperature.
T.K. Hartz and P.R. Johnstone
Limited soil nitrogen (N) availability is a common problem in organic vegetable production that often necessitates in-season fertilization. The rate of net nitrogen mineralization (Nmin) from four organic fertilizers (seabird guano, hydrolyzed fish powder, feather meal, and blood meal) containing between 11.7% and 15.8% N was compared in a laboratory incubation. The fertilizers were mixed with soil from a field under organic management and incubated aerobically at constant moisture at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. Nmin was determined on samples extracted after 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Rapid Nmin was observed from all fertilizers at all temperatures; within 2 weeks between 47% and 60% of organic N had been mineralized. Temperature had only modest effects, with 8-week Nmin averaging 56% and 66% across fertilizers at 10 and 25 °C, respectively. Across temperatures, 8-week Nmin averaged 60%, 61%, 62%, and 66% for feather meal, seabird guano, fish powder, and blood meal, respectively. Cost per unit of available N (mineralized N + initial inorganic N) varied widely among fertilizers, with feather meal the least and fish powder the most expensive.
P.R. Johnstone, T.K. Hartz, M.D. Cahn, and M.R. Johnstone
Decades of heavy phosphorus (P) fertilization of vegetable crops in the Salinas Valley of California has increased soil test P (STP) levels, with bicarbonate-extractable P (Pbc) values >50 mg·kg–1 now common. To evaluate the response of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) to P fertilization in fields with elevated STP levels, 12 trials were conducted in commercial fields during 2002–03. Initial Pbc at the trial sites varied from 53 to 171 mg·kg–1. In each trial, four replicate plots receiving the growers' P application were compared with paired plots in which no P was applied. Leaf P was monitored at midseason and at harvest. At harvest, mean whole and marketable plant mass and percent of marketable plants were recorded. A significant increase in lettuce yield with P fertilization was achieved at only one trial site, a spring planting with 54 mg·kg–1 Pbc; at all other sites, including three with Pbc <60 mg·kg–1, P application resulted in no significant yield increase. Phosphorus application resulted in only a marginal increase in plant P uptake; in the nonresponsive fields leaf P concentration of nonfertilized plots was in excess of established sufficiency levels. In a laboratory study, the correlation of Pbc to bioavailable P (Pba) was evaluated using 30 representative Salinas Valley soils; Pbc varied among these soils from 15 to 177 mg·kg–1. Pba was estimated by P adsorption on an anion resin membrane during a 16 hour incubation. The effect of temperature on P bioavailability in six of these soils was estimated by conducting the Pba incubation at 5, 15, and 25 °C. Pba was highly correlated with Pbc (r = 0.89), and increased about 40% across soils with each 10 °C increase in soil temperature. Therefore, Pbc was determined to be an accurate reflection of bioavailable P in these soils, although the addition of a temperature correction factor in setting threshold values is desirable.
T. K. Hartz, P. R. Johnstone, and E. M. Miyao
The effect of K fertigation through buried drip irrigation on processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) was evaluated in two California field trials in 2004, and soil K dynamics was investigated in greenhouse trials. Fertigation trials were conducted in fields with exchangeable soil K of 190 (site 1) and 270 mg·kg-1 (site 2), above the yield response threshold by traditional preplant or sidedress K application established by prior research. Two fertigation strategies were compared to an unfertilized control: continuous fertigation at 100 mg·L-1 K from early fruit set through early fruit color development, and weekly application of 40 kg·ha-1 K over the same period. In both treatments, a total of 200 kg·ha-1 K (from KCl) was applied. K fertigation significantly increased fruit yield at site 2, and improved fruit color at both sites. In the greenhouse experiments, fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was grown for 2 weeks atop columns of eight soils ranging from 120–380 mg·kg-1 exchangeable K; the columns were wetted from the bottom, by capillarity. The fescue roots were separated from the soil by a nylon fabric that prevented root penetration while allowing the penetration of root hairs, creating a two-dimensional root/soil interface. In all soils, fescue K uptake reduced soil exchangeable K only in the top 2 mm of the columns, suggesting that effective K diffusion was very limited. In columns of 200-mm height, applying 100 mg·kg-1 K in the water used to wet the soil had minimal impact on fescue K uptake. In columns of 15-mm height, this method of K application more than doubled fescue K uptake in all soils, suggesting that the effective limit of K movement was between 15-200 mm.
T.K. Hartz*, P.R. Johnstone, and J.J. Nunez
Cracking of carrot (Daucus carota L.) roots during harvest and handling is a serious problem for the commercial industry, particularly for `cut and peeled' products. Thirty commercial fields of cv. `Sugar Snax' in California were surveyed over the period 2000-03. Soil texture was determined, and soil and crop nutrient status, air temperature and soil moisture were monitored. In 10 fields the effect of excessive N fertilization was investigated; 90-180 kg·ha-1 N was sidedressed in addition to the growers' N regime. At one site a comparison of 10 cultivars was conducted to determine the root cracking sensitivity of commercial cultivars suitable for the cut and peeled market. In all fields roots were hand harvested, with undamaged roots 18-24 mm in diameter selected for study. Roots were cooled to 5 °C and subjected to an impact test to rate cracking sensitivity. Fields varied widely in root cracking sensitivity, with 4% to76% of roots cracked in the impact test. Cracking sensitivity was positively correlated with the % silt and clay in soil, and with air temperature in the final month of growth. Irrigation management had no consistent effect on cracking sensitivity. N application in excess of the growers' N regime did not increase carrot yield, but increased root cracking sensitivity by an average of 30%. Root cracking varied among cultivars from 10% to 49%. However, when the periderm was peeled from roots before impact testing, incidence of cracking declined to 2% or less in all cultivars. Periderm strength or flexibility is apparently the dominant factor in carrot cracking sensitivity, and environmental and management variables that affect cracking sensitivity must do so by affecting the periderm structure.
T.K. Hartz, P.R. Johnstone, and J.J. Nunez
Carrot (Daucus carota L.) root cracking and breakage during harvest and handling operations result in serious losses. The environmental and management factors affecting carrot cracking and breakage susceptibility were investigated in a survey of fields and a series of trials conducted in California from 2000–02. Roots, leaves and soil were collected from a total of 31 commercial fields of `Sugar Snax' carrot, and soil texture and plant and soil fertility status were determined. Soil moisture was monitored in 10 fields to determine whether irrigation management was correlated with root cracking susceptibility; in 4 of these fields roots were harvested both before 0800 hr and at 1300 hr on the same day to directly compare the effects of root water status on cracking. The effect of N fertilization on cracking and breakage was investigated in 5 field trials. The relative susceptibility of 10 cultivars to cracking and breakage was also compared. Cracking susceptibility was determined with an impact test, and breakage with a loading test. Roots were selected by size (18 to 24 mm diameter) and cooled to 5 °C before testing. The percentage of roots cracked in the impact test varied from 7% to 75% among survey fields. Initial root water potential was not correlated with cracking incidence. However, after hydrating roots to minimize differences in water potential among fields, cracking incidence was correlated with turgor potential (r = 0.41). Soil sand content and mean air temperature in the 30 days preceding harvest were also correlated with cracking (r = –0.48 and 0.36, respectively), suggesting that cracking susceptibility may be minimized in cool weather and in light-textured soil. Irrigation management in the final 30 days preceding harvest had no consistent effect on root cracking. Time of day of harvest had a small but significant effect, with roots harvested before 0800 hr being more crack-susceptible. N fertilization in excess of that required to maximize root yield significantly increased cracking susceptibility. Cultivars varied widely in cracking susceptibility, with less variation in tissue strength and stiffness. Removal of the periderm dramatically decreased susceptibility to both cracking and breakage.
P.R. Johnstone, T.K. Hartz, and D.M. May
California melon (Cucumis melo) growers commonly apply calcium (Ca) fertilizers during fruit development to increase fruit firmness and improve storage life. Drip-irrigated field trials were conducted in central California in 2005 and 2006 to evaluate the efficacy of this practice on honeydew (C. melo Inodorus group) and muskmelon (C. melo Reticulatus group). In the 2005 honeydew trial, three weekly applications of 10 lb/acre Ca from calcium nitrate (CN), calcium thiosulfate (CTS), or calcium chloride (CC) were injected into the irrigation system during early melon development. In the 2006 muskmelon trial, two applications of 15 lb/acre Ca from CTS or CC were made early, or two applications of CC late, in melon development. The effect of these Ca fertigation treatments on fruit yield, soluble solids concentration, flesh firmness, and Ca concentration were compared with an untreated control receiving no Ca fertigation. Calcium fertigation had no effect on marketable yield, quality, or Ca concentration of honeydew or muskmelon fruit regardless of application timing or Ca source applied. Loss of firmness during either 2 weeks (honeydew) or 1 week (muskmelon) of postharvest storage was unrelated to Ca fertigation treatment and was not correlated with Ca concentration in fruit tissue. We conclude that under conditions representative of the California melon industry, Ca fertigation at typical application rates is ineffective in improving honeydew or muskmelon yield or fruit quality.
P. R. Johnstone, T. K. Hartz, E. M. Miyao, and R. M. Davis
Mustard cover crop residue has been reported to have a “biofumigant” action when incorporated into the soil, potentially providing significant disease suppression and yield improvement for the succeeding crop. Such activity could be particularly useful in processing tomato rotations, where consecutive cropping invariably results in yield decline. Agronomic and environmental effects of growing over-winter mustard cover crops preceding tomato production were investigated in three field trials between 2002 and 2004. Two mustard cover crops [`Pacific Gold', a brown mustard (Brassica juncea), and `Caliente', a blend of brown and white mustard (Sinapis alba)] were compared to a legume cover crop mix, a fallow bed treatment (the standard grower practice in this region), and, in two of the three trials, a fumigation treatment using metam sodium. No suppression of soil populations of Verticillium dahliae or Fusarium spp. was observed with the mustard cover crops, nor was there any visual evidence of disease suppression on subsequent tomato crops. In these fields, the mustard either had no effect, or reduced tomato yield, when compared to the fallow treatment. At one of two sites, metam sodium fumigation significantly increased tomato yield. The presence of a cover crop, whether mustard or legume, reduced winter runoff by an average of 50% over two years of trials. No benefit of mustard cover cropping beyond this reduction in winter runoff was observed.
Timothy K. Hartz, P. R. Johnstone, E. Williams, and R.F. Smith
A survey of 78 commercial iceberg and romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) fields in the coastal valleys of central California was conducted in 2004–2005. Whole leaf samples were collected at early heading and again within 1 week of harvest. Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) leaf concentration norms were calculated for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, B, Zn, Mn, Fe, and Cu. Iceberg and romaine lettuce had sufficiently similar leaf nutrient concentrations that the data were combined in the DRIS calculations. Optimum leaf nutrient ranges were developed using data from high-yield fields in which all nutrients were in balance according to the DRIS approach. The DRIS-derived optimum ranges for K and Ca were substantially lower than previously published leaf sufficiency ranges, whereas for the other nutrients, the DRIS optimum ranges were in close agreement. Cu was the nutrient most frequently below the optimum range in low-yield fields. Comparison of leaf nutrient concentrations with soil nutrient availability and grower fertilization practices suggested that significant improvement in fertilizer management was possible.