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  • Author or Editor: P.G. Thompson x
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Abstract

‘Mississippi Shipper’ is a new cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] cultivar that maintains pod wall color during the time required for fresh market shipping, storage, and retailing. It was released in 1984 by the Mississippi Agricultural and Forestry Experiment Station to fill the need for a purple hull brown crowder type adapted to shipping, with multiple disease and insect resistance.

Open Access

Abstract

During the 1978 growing season, data on the number, timing and dosages of pesticide applications were collected in Wayne County, New York from 23 growers not participating in the New York Tree Fruit Program (NYTFP). Thirty-three blocks of apples were matched with 33 similar blocks from growers participating in the NYTFP. Average annual pesticide costs for participants were $48 and $71 per hectare lower than for nonparticipants, for fresh and processing fruit, respectively. No change in quality or yield of fruit was observed.

Open Access

Eight plant bed fertilizer treatments (N–P–K) were evaluated for the effect on plant production and sweetpotato yield. The treatments ranged from 0–0–0 to 450–450–450 lb/ac. `Beauregard' roots were bedded. After the first plant cutting, 50 lb/ac 34–0–0 was applied to half of the beds. For the second cutting, the 0N–0P–0K treatment without additional N produced plants with less green weight compared to the other treatments; there were no differences between the other 15 treatments. For the first plant cutting, 150–150–150 and 150–300–450 lb/ac produced plants with less green weight compared to 0–0–0, 75–150–300, 300–450–600, and 450–450–450 lb/ac. There were no differences in sweetpotato yield due to plant bed fertilization.

Free access

Narrow-sense heritability for component traits of freedom from weevil injury and yield of sweetpotato were estimated by parent-offspring regression and variance component analysis. Heritability estimates by variance component analysis based on half-sib families for percent and number of uninjured roots were 0.25 and 0.83, respectively. Individual plant heritability estimates for uninjured root percent and number were 0.03 and 0.13, respectively. Heritability estimates by parent-offspring regression for uninjured root percent and number were 0.35 and 0.52, respectively. Genetic variance was mostly additive for all traits except stem diameter. Genetic correlations between total root number, uninjured root number, and percent uninjured roots ranged from 0.66 to 0.87, indicating that selection for uninjured root number should most effectively increase uninjured root number and percent, as well as total root numbers. Predicted gains in uninjured root percent and number were 8.8% and 0.87 in the progeny derived from intermating the highest four out of 19 families for uninjured root number. The 0.87 gain in uninjured root number equals a 24% increase in one breeding cycle.

Free access

The inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematode race 3 [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] was studied in 71 progenies of the F1 single-cross population produced from the cross of resistant parent `Regal' and susceptible parent `Vardaman'. The distribution frequency of the progenies based on log total nematode number (egg + juvenile counts) was a bimodal distribution with a ratio of ≈4 resistant : 1 susceptible. Based on this phenotypic ratio, the proposed genetic model was duplex polysomic inheritance (RRrrrr = resistant parent and rrrrrr = susceptible parent). Bulk segregant analysis in conjunction with the RAPD technique was used to identify a RAPD marker linked to a root-knot-nematode-resistance gene. Of 760 random decamer primers screened, 9 showed polymorphic bands between the two bulk DNA samples. Primer OPI51500 produced a band in the resistant bulk but not in the susceptible bulk, suggesting a linkage in coupling phase. An estimated recombination fraction of 0.2421 ± 0.057 between the marker and the root-knot-nematode-resistance gene indicated linkage.

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`Beauregard' storage roots which were discarded from the Mississippi sweetpotato foundation seed program because of the presence of flesh mutations were bedded in Spring 1991. After the plants were pulled from the roots, the roots were further examined, and the flesh mutations were characterized by size and frequency. The progency from the original roots were examined for flesh mutations for three generations in 1991, 1992, and 1993. The degree of mutation in the original root did not influence the degree of mutation in succeeding generations of storage roots. In 1992 and 1993, the degree of mutation in the third and fourth generation roots did not differ from that of storage roots grown from plants from the foundation seed plant beds.

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`Beauregard' and `Centennial' were planted in plots of four different topsoil thicknesses (0, 3, 6, and 9 inches) to evaluate the effect of topsoil thickness on sweetpotato production. In 1994, the 0-inch topsoil treatment produced a greater total marketable yield for `Beauregard' than did the 6- and 9-inch topsoil for `Centennial'. The 0- and 9-inch topsoil produced a greater total marketable yield than did the 3- and 6-inch treatment. When averaged over 2 years, 1993 and 1994, there were no differences in total marketable yield in either `Beauregard' or `Centennial' due to topsoil thickness. Averaged over both years, topsoil thickness had no effect on weight, diameter, or length of `Beauregard' roots.

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Three-year-old `Valencia' orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] trees were exposed to air pollutants for 4. years in open-top field chambers to determine the chronic effects of ambient oxidants (primarily ozone) or sulfur dioxide (SO2) on fruit yield and quality and tree growth. Ozone concentrations averaged 0.012,0.040, and 0.075 ppm for 0800 to 2000 hr during April to October for filtered, half-ambient, and full ambient oxidant chambers. Sulfur dioxide was applied continuously at 0.09 ppm. Oxidant and SO2 effects were only marginally significant, as there was considerable variability in response among individual trees and between years. Across two “on” production years, yields were 31% lower with ambient oxidants, 11% lower with half-ambient oxidants, and 29% lower with sulfur dioxide compared to filtered air. Number of fruit per tree was reduced by ambient oxidants and SO2. Individual fruit weights were reduced by ambient oxidants, but no other fruit quality characteristics showed definite responses to ambient oxidants or SO2. Ambient oxidants had no effect on yield or quality of fruit during one “off' production year. Neither ambient oxidants nor SO, affected tree growth.

Free access