Fairy ring is a common and troublesome disease of turfgrasses maintained on golf course putting greens. Type-I fairy ring is especially destructive due to the development of hydrophobic conditions in the thatch and root zone, thus contributing to turfgrass injury and loss. The objective of this 2-year field study was to evaluate the application and novel delivery method of two fungicides and a soil surfactant for curative control of type-I fairy ring in a 20-year-old creeping bentgrass [Agrostis palustris (synonym A. stolonifera)] putting green. In both years, all treatments were applied twice on a 28-day interval. In 1998, flutolanil and azoxystrobin fungicides were applied alone and in combination with Primer soil surfactant by a conventional topical spray method, and fungicides without Primer applied via high-pressure injection (HPI). Acceptable type-I fairy ring control was observed in plots treated with flutolanil plus Primer, HPI flutolanil, azoxystrobin alone, azoxystrobin plus Primer, or HPI azoxystrobin. In 1999, treatments were HPI flutolanil, HPI flutolanil plus Primer, HPI azoxystrobin, HPI water only, and aeration only. Acceptable type-I fairy ring control was observed in plots treated with HPI flutolanil plus Primer or HPI azoxystrobin. HPI of fungicides alone or in combination with a soil surfactant may be a viable option for alleviating type-I fairy ring symptoms on golf course putting greens.
To enlarge the palette of environmentally-responsible landscape plants, 117 garden rose cultivars were evaluated under minimal input conditions. Other than mulching and irrigation, no other inputs were provided, including no fertilization and no pesticide applications. Plants were established in completely randomized blocks with four reps in the spring of 1998 with data collection beginning in 2000 and continued through 2002. Data on overall performance (an index comprised of flower number, percent of plant covered with flowers and plant growth) and relative chlorophyll content were collected the first and third week of each month from April through October. Disease ratings or incidence ratings were collected for Diplocarpon rosae Wolf (black spot), Alternaria sp. (petal blight) and Sphaerotheca pannosa (powdery mildew). Statistical analysis was performed on the mean data for all dates. `Knockout' was the top rose for overall quality with little or no disease observed, high foliage quality, and continuous flowers from spring until late in the fall. `Knockout' also ranked among the top rose cultivars in terms of overall nutrient concentrations (N, P, K, and Fe) in new growth tissue. Most of the hybrid tea roses such as `Peace' and `Double Delight' died in at least three blocks due to disease and a lack of vigor.