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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Ten single plant replications of 11 taxa were planted 6 May 1994, fertilized regularly, and maintained under drip irrigation. Japanese beetle damage became apparent in mid-June. Sevin SL at 1 qt/100 gal was applied with a tractor-mounted mist blower on 22 June, and 7 and 19 July. Data on Japanese beetle populations were recorded using an arbitrary scale of 0 (no beetles) to 10 (heavy infestation). Damage on each tree was recorded using an arbitrary scale of 0 (no damage) to 10 (completely skeletonized). The annual increment in height and caliper growth was recorded for each tree in Fall 1994. Ulmus japonica and U. glabra `Pendula' had the most height growth (>60 cm increment) but were not significantly different from most other accessions, while NA 60070, U. crassifolia, and NA 60071 had significantly slower growth than the former group(<25 cm increment). Japanese beetles fed first on U. carpinifolia `Variegata', NA 60071, and 60070, skeletonizing most of the new growth before the first Sevin application, resulting in the most damage. This may have resulted in poor growth of the USDA/NA selections in 1994.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Several commercially available Acer saccharinum and A. negundo taxa were established with 10 single-plant replications in a cultivar trial at the TSU–NCRS in 1993 and 1994. Each plant was fertilized in spring and early summer with 100 gm 15–15–15 beginning Summer 1993. Drip irrigation was applied as needed beginning Summer 1993. Vegetation within tree rows was controlled with preemergent and postemergent herbicides, while grassed middles were mowed. Growth data were recorded in Fall 1993 and 1994 and height and caliper increment calculated for the 1994 season. In the silver maple group with most height growth were: `Silver Queen', `Skinneri', and `Silver Pyramid'. These differed significantly from a group of four slower growing cultivars. Cultivars with the most height growth also had the most caliper growth. Seedling boxelder grew faster than one accession of `Flamingo', while three other cultivars were intermediate. Data will also be presented on insect and disease ratings.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Commercially available Acer saccharum cultivars, and some closely related species accessions (floridanum, leucoderme, macrophyllum, and nigrum `Greencolumn'), were established as 10 single-plant replications in a cultivar trial at the TSU–NCRS in 1993 and Spring 1994. Plants were regularly fertilized and drip irrigation was begun Summer 1993. Growth data were recorded each fall and height and caliper increment calculated for the 1994 season. In the group with most height growth were: `Bonfire', `Majesty', nigrum `Greencolumn', leucoderme, `Sweet Shadow', `Fairview', and macrophyllum. These, except for `Fairview' and macrophyllum, differed significantly from a group of seven slower growing cultivars. With some exceptions, cultivars with the most height growth tended to have the most caliper growth, while those with the least height growth tended to have the least caliper growth. Data will also be presented on insect and disease ratings.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Commercially available Norway and sycamore maple taxa were established as 10 single-plant replications in a cultivar trial at the TSU–NCRS in 1993 and Spring 1994. Each plant was fertilized regularly and drip irrigation was begun Summer 1993. Vegetation within tree rows was controlled with preemergent and postemergent herbicides, while grassed middles were mowed. Growth data was recorded in Fall 1993 and 1994 and height and caliper increment calculated for the 1994 season. In this group of 29 taxa, 9 cultivars were in the group with most height growth: `Columnare', `Pond', `Deborah', `Crystal', `Parkway', `Columnarbroad', `Schwedleri', `Summershade', and `Fairview'. With some exceptions, cultivars with the most height growth tended to have the most caliper growth, while those with the least height growth tended to have the least caliper growth, with the notable exception of `Columnar'. Data will also be presented on insect and disease ratings.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Commercially available Acer rubrum and A. freemanii taxa were established as 10 single-plant replications in a cultivar trial at the TSU–NCRS in 1992 and Spring 1993. Plants were fertilized regularly and drip-irrigated as needed beginning Summer 1993. Growth data were recorded each fall and height and caliper increment calculated for the 1994 season. Ten cultivars were in the group with most height growth: `Armstrong', `Autumn Blaze', `Schlesingeri', `Olson', `Morgan', `Scarlet Red', `Embers', `Indian Summer', `Scarsen', and `October Glory'. These all differed significantly from a group of 11 slow-growing cultivars. With some exceptions, cultivars with the most height growth tended to have the most caliper growth, while those with the least height growth tended to have the least caliper growth. Data will also be presented on insect and disease ratings.

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W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Eighty-one accessions of oak species, hybrids, and cultivars from commercially available sources were established at TSU-NCRS in Fall 1993 and Spring 1994, using 10 single-plant replications in a randomized complete block. Drip irrigation was begun on a regular basis May 1994, and plants were fertilized regularly. Height and diameter was recorded Fall 1994 and 1995. Fastest growing oaks in order of cm height growth increment over the two growing seasons were nigra, phellos, texana nuttalli, cerris, macrocarpa, falcata pagodaefolia, macrocarpa `Maximus', acutissima, austrina, shumardii, muehlenbergi, falcata, robur fastigiata, lyrata, virginiana, palustris, acutissima `Gobbler', glandulifera, macrocarpa `Ashworth', gambelli ×macrocarpa, alba. Most evergeen oaks did not survive Winter 1995–96, and data will be reported on winterkill.

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W.E. Klingeman, R.M. Augé, and P.C. Flanagan

Mycorrhizal symbiosis, a natural association between roots and certain soil fungi, can improve growth and increase stress resistance of many nursery crops. Field soils of four middle Tennessee and two eastern Tennessee nurseries were surveyed for their mycorrhizal inoculum potential (MIP), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) concentrations, and soil pH. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which colonized seedlings of a Sorghum bicolor trap-crop, were recovered from all soils. Tissue samples were taken from young roots of three economically important tree species grown in nursery field soils: red maple (Acer rubrum L. `October Glory'), flowering dogwood (Cornus florida L. `Cherokee Princess'), and Kwanzan cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. `Kwanzan'). AM fungi, regardless of soil type, soil pH, or P or K concentration, had colonized young roots of all three species. Unless interested in establishing exotic mycorrhizae, ornamental nursery producers in Tennessee do not need to supplement field soils with these beneficial fungi.

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G.L. McDaniel, D.C. Fare, W.T. Witte, and P.C. Flanagan

Research was conducted to compare non-ionic, paraffin-based crop oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, and organosilicone surfactants combined with Manage (MON 12051, holosulfuron) applied at a reduced rate for yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) control efficiency and evaluation of phytotoxicity to five container-grown ornamental species. Manage at 0.018 kg a.i./ha was combined with 0.25% or 0.5% (v/v) of the following surfactants: X-77, Scoil, Action “99”, Sun It II, or Agri-Dex. Yellow nutsedge tubers (10 per 3.8-L container) were planted into containers along with the following nursery crops: `Lynnwood Gold' forsythia, `Big Blue' liriope, `Pink Lady' weigela, `Blue Girl' Chinese holly, and `Bennett's Compacta' Japanese holly. Treatments were applied 5 weeks after potting on 13 June 1998 and phytotoxicity ratings taken 4 and 8 weeks later and growth measured after 8 weeks. Sun It II provided the most-effective nutsedge control without reducing growth and causing minimal phytotoxicity to the ornamental plants tested. X-77 (the recommended surfactant for Manage) provided only moderate nutsedge control. Efficient nutsedge control can be accomplished with Manage at one-half the recommended rate when combined with the correct surfactant. Some temporary phytotoxicity symptoms can be expected and a slight overall growth reduction is possible, depending on the surfactant selected.

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M.T. Windham, W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Fifty-five cultivars of crapemyrtle were established in a cultivar trial with 10 single-plant replications during Fall 1993 and Spring 1994. Drip irrigation began on a regular basis on 18 May 1994 and plants were fertilized regularly. Powdery mildew appeared in July, and within 2 to 3 weeks maximum levels of infection occurred. Plants were rated using a scale of 0 (healthy) to 5 (totally mildewed). In the group of seven cultivars, most heavily infected (>2.8 rating), `Byers Wonderful White' was worst (4.1), followed by `Royalty', `Pink Lace', `Prairie Lace', `Petite Plum', `Firebird', and `Christmastime'. There were 21 cultivars with no mildew (0.0). Many of these were USDA–NA hybrids but also included `Hope', `Bourbon Street', `Glendora White', `Petite Snow', `Centennial Spirit', and `Hardy Lavender'. A few USDA–NA hybrids had slight mildew: `Potomac', `Powhatan', `Catawba', `Seminole', `Biloxi', and `Hopi' (<10% of foliage mildewed).

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M.T. Windham, W.T. Witte, R.J. Sauve, and P.C. Flanagan

Eighty-one oak taxa were established at the Nursery Crops Research Station in McMinnville, Tenn., in Fall 1993 and Spring 1994. Drip irrigation was applied as needed beginning 18 May 1994 and plants were fertilized regularly. Powdery mildew began to appear in July on some taxa. Each plant was rated on a scale where 0 = healthy plant and 5 = totally mildewed. Height and caliper were recorded in Fall 1994 and the 1994 growth increment calculated. Quercus robur fastigiata was most severely affected by powdery mildew (4.1), followed by a group of six taxa, including douglasii, oglethorpensis, macrocarpa, virginiana, prinus, and aliena (2.3–1.4). There were slight amounts of mildew on 26 taxa and 48 taxa were mildew-free. Growth increment in height and caliper will also be presented.