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P. A. Roberts and R. W. Scheuerman

Abstract

Clones of ‘Jewel’, ‘Eureka’, ‘Pope’, ‘Oklamex’, ‘Garnet’, L5-19, NC-719, and W-152 sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam] were tested for 1 to 3 seasons in field plots of coarse-textured sand soils. The soils were infested with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Paratrichodorus minor (Colbran) Siddiqui that included 1,3-dichloropropene fumigated and nonfumigated subplots. ‘Jewel’, followed by ‘Pope’, was the highest-yielding copper-skinned type and the least affected by nematode infection; however, it supported large numbers of M. incognita. Yields of ‘Eureka’ were lowest in nonfumigated plots in the presence of P. minor. Significantly greater P. minor population increase occurred on ‘Eureka’ than on other clones. Yield of red-skinned W-152 was greater than ‘Garnet’ on fumigated plots, but W-152 showed no greater yield when nematode-infected. ‘Oklamex’, L5-19, and NC-719 were discontinued after 1 year because of poor yield or quality. M. incognita resistance in all clones prevented damage to the appearance of sweet potatoes, but plant growth and yield were increased significantly in fumigated plots compared with yields from nonfumigated plots. M. incognita reproduced on all lines, especially when soil temperature was high in 1981.

Open access

P. C. Lin and A. N. Roberts

Abstract

Response of cold-treated ‘Nellie White’ Easter lily bulbs to various degrees of scale removal, ranging from 0 to 100%, showed that scales can perform inhibitory and promotive roles at various times. The scales were not necessary for flower induction, but the number of leaves and flowers initiated was proportional to the number of scales retained. Daughter scale removal accelerated daughter sprouting by increasing internode elongation, but subsequently reduced the rate of organ formation and expansion. Daughter scale removal reduced the number of leaves and flowers initiated and anthesis was delayed because of the reduction in rate at which these organs expanded.

Free access

P.W. Simon, P.A. Roberts, and L.S. Boiteux

Nematodes impart significant damage to carrot production worldwide. Genetic resistance was studied for Meloidogyne javanica, one of the three major nematodes affecting carrots in warmer climates. F2, F3, and backcross families of `Brasilia' × B6274 were evaluated for resistance in inoculated seedlings. Resistance was conditioned by one, or two linked, dominant loci. Molecular markers were also evaluated with bulked segregant analysis. Three RAPD markers and AFLPs were associated with resistance loci.

Free access

Robert C. Ebel, James P. Mattheis, and David A. Buchanan

Potted apple trees were severely (S) or moderately (M) droughted and compared to a well-watered control (C) to determine changes in biogenesis of leaf volatile compounds. Total available water (TAW) of the soil was allowed to decline to near 0% TAW, 20% TAW, and 100% TAW, for S, M and C, respectively, by the end of a two-week drying period. Twenty-nine volatile compounds were identified by GC-MS using headspace sampling of detached leaves. Concentrations of (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, l-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol and hexyl acetate were 5 to 310 times higher for S than C. It is suggested that the large drought induced increase in C-6 compounds was related to enhanced lipoxygenase activity.

Free access

Michael P. Crotser, Leslie A. Weston, and Robert McNiel

Sulfentrazone is a promising new herbicide now under evaluation for use in agronomic and ornamental cropping systems. Sulfentrazone selectively controls yellow nutsedge, morningglories, and other annual grasses and broadleaf weeds. Research was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of sulfentrazone in combination with other labeled products for preemergence weed control in nursery crops. Treatments included sulfentrazone at 0.56 and 1.12 kg a.i./ha and sulfentrazone at 0.37 kg a.i./ha in combination with the following; dithiopyr at 0.37 kg, oxyfluorfen at 0.56 kg, metolachlor at 3.36 kg, isoxaben at 0.56 kg, norfluorazon at 2.64 kg, and isoxaben plus oryzalin at 2.24 kg a.i./ha. Combinations of sulfentrazone with isoxaben or metolachlor provided superior control of morningglory spp., honeyvine milkweed, Carolina horsenettle, and yellow nutsedge. Sulfentrazone plus oxyfluorfen or isoxaben plus oryzalin also provided good control. Poorest overall control was obtained with sulfentrazone plus dithiopyr. Viburnum and deciduous holly were slightly injured 4 WAT with sulfentrazone plus metolachlor. Sulfentrazone plus dithiopyr treatments resulted in serious injury to burning bush 4 WAT and slight injury at 8 WAT.

Open access

Charles A. Sims, Richard P. Johnson, Robert P. Bates, and Linda F. Moore

Abstract

Hand- and machine-harvested ‘Stover’ (a white Euvitis hybrid) and ‘Noble’ (a red Vitis rotundofolia cultivar) grapes were either treated with 100 mg SO2/kg (applied as potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5) or not treated and held at ambient temperature (≈25°C) for 0, 24, and 48 hr after harvest. Raw fruit and wine quality from each treatment were evaluated. ‘Noble’ grapes of all treatments held for 24 hr had developed signs of microbial spoilage, and the machine-harvested grapes held without SO2 had the most. However, only the machine-harvested ‘Stover’ grapes held without SO2 had began to deteriorate during 24 hr. Grapes of both cultivars had deteriorated after 48 hr, but SO2 limited the deterioration of both machine- and hand-harvested grapes. In general, machine-harvested grapes deteriorated to a greater extent than hand-harvested grapes. Wines made from ‘Noble’ grapes that had been held for 0 or 24 hr had similar quality, but machine-harvested ‘Stover’ grapes held for 0 to 24 hr without SO2 produced a poorer wine than the other treatments. Wines from machine-harvested grapes held for 48 hr had poorer quality than wines from hand-harvested grapes. Postharvest additions of SO2 improved the quality of wine from machine-harvested but not hand-harvested fruit held for 48 hr.

Free access

Wallace G. Pill, Thomas A. Evans, Michael W. Olszewski, Robert P. Mulrooney, and Walter E. Kee Jr.

'Maffei 15' baby lima bean seeds were sown every 6 cm in rows 76 cm apart to yield a nominal stand of 215,000 plants/ha at two locations in Delaware over 2 years. Seedlings were thinned within 2 weeks of planting to provide 0%, 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50.0% stand reduction at two in-row spacing patterns to determine subsequent effects on vegetative and reproductive growth. Shoot fresh weight per square meter was decreased only in 2003 by 21% and bean fresh weight per square meter was decreased only in 2004 by 13.8% when plant stand decreased to 50%. This disproportional vegetative and reproductive growth response to stand reduction resulted from a compensatory linear increase in shoot fresh weight, usable pod number, and bean fresh weight of individual plants. Thus, 'Maffei 15' lima bean tolerates a considerable loss of plant stand with little or no effect on yield.

Free access

Robert K. Prange, Ali A. Ramin, Barbara J. Daniels-Lake, John M. DeLong, and P. Gordon Braun

Fewer postharvest technologies are available for use on organic than conventional fruits and vegetables. Even though biopesticides are perceived as likely candidates for postharvest use on organic produce, only some biopesticides will be approved as organic compounds for various reasons. An example is the definition of a biopesticide used by regulatory agencies such as the EPA which includes compounds that will not be considered organically acceptable. Fortunately, there are other existing or new technologies that could be acceptable on organic fruits and vegetables. Some examples are hot water immersion treatment or a hot water rinsing and brushing, new innovative controlled atmosphere techniques, alternative sprout control agents, naturally occurring volatiles and biofumigants. More research is needed on each of these technologies, both singly and in combination with each other.

Free access

Maryna Serdani, Robert A. Spotts, Jill M. Calabro, Joseph D. Postman, and Annie P. Qu

Powdery mildew (PM) occurs worldwide and is prevalent on susceptible cultivars wherever pears are grown, causing economic losses due to russeted fruit and an increased need for fungicides. A core subset of the Pyrus germplasm collection at the USDA National Clonal Germplasm Repository in Corvallis, Ore., was evaluated for resistance to Podosphaera leucotricha, the causal agent of PM, using greenhouse and field inoculations of potted trees. The core collection consists of about 200 cultivars and species selections, representing most of the genetic diversity of pears and includes 31 Asian cultivars (ASN), 122 European cultivars (EUR), 9 EUR × ASN hybrids and 46 pear species selections. Three trees of each core accession were grafted on seedling rootstocks. In 2001–02, trees were artificially inoculated in a greenhouse, grown under conditions conducive for PM, and evaluated for symptoms. The same trees were subsequently evaluated for PM symptoms from natural field infections during 2003 and 2004. In the greenhouse, 95% of EUR and 38% of ASN were infected with PM. Average PM incidence (percent of leaves infected) in the greenhouse (8% for ASN and 30% for EUR) was much higher than incidence in the field (2% for ASN and 5% for EUR) during 2003. Symptoms were also more severe in the greenhouse, with 46% of ASN and 83% of EUR with PM symptoms having a mean PM incidence of >10%. In the field, 42% and 22% of EUR and 23% and 13% of ASN were infected with P. leucotricha in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Field infection was very low during both years, with percentage leaves infected in ASN and species selections significantly different from EUR. In the field, 6% of ASN with PM symptoms had a mean PM incidence >10% during both years, while 15% and 2% of EUR accessions with PM symptoms had a mean PM incidence >10% in 2003 and 2004 respectively. These results should be very useful to pear breeding programs to develop improved PM resistant cultivars in the future, by using accessions with consistent low PM ratings.

Free access

Ali A. Ramin, P. Gordon Braun, Robert K. Prange, and John M. DeLong

Biofumigation by volatiles of Muscodor albus Worapong, Strobel & W.M. Hess, an endophytic fungus, was investigated for the biological control of three postharvest fungi, Botrytis cinerea Pers., Penicillium expansum Link, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib) de Bary, and three bacteria, Erwinia carotovora pv. carotovora (Jones) Bergey et al., Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula (isolate A7B), and Escherichia coli (strain K12). Bacteria and fungi on artificial media in petri dishes were exposed to volatiles produced by M. albus mycelium growing on rye seeds in sealed glass 4-L jars with or without air circulation for up to 48 hours. The amount of dry M. albus–rye seed culture varied from 0.25 to 1.25 g·L–1 of jar volume. Fan circulation of volatiles in jars increased efficacy and 0.25 g·L–1 with fan circulation was sufficient to kill or suppress all fungi and bacteria after 24 and 48 hours, respectively. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA) and 2-methyl-1-butanol (MB), and one minor one, ethyl butyrate (EB), varied in their control of the same postharvest fungi and bacteria. Among the three fungi, IBA killed or suppressed S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, and P. expansum at 40, 25, and 45 μL·L –1, respectively. MB killed or suppressed S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, and P. expansum at 75, 100, and 100 μL·L –1, respectively. EB was only able to kill S. sclerotiorum at 100 μL·L –1. Among the three bacteria, IBA killed or suppressed E. coli (K12), E. carotovora pv. carotovora, and P. fluorescens at 5, 12.5, and 12.5 μL·L–1, respectively. MB killed or suppressed E. coli (K12), E. carotovora pv. carotovora, and P. fluorescens at 100, 75, and 100 μL·L–1, respectively. EB did not control growth of the three bacteria. This study demonstrates the need for air circulation in M. albus, MB, and IBA treatments to optimize the efficacy of these potential postharvest agents of disease control.