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  • Author or Editor: P. N. Miller x
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Known populations (0, 269, 538, and 1075/ha) of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum LeConte) were maintained in wire mesh-enclosed blocks of ‘McIntosh’/M26 apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) for 2 years. There was little effect of the voles the 1st year, but the 2nd year the highest population was associated with the death of one tree; severe reductions in growth, yield, and fruit size; and a dramatic reduction in the value of the crop. Neither the low nor the medium population affected yield significantly, but there was a reduction in vegetative growth in the medium population plot in the 2nd year.

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One of the problems associated with preplant bulb dips into plant growth regulator (PGR) solutions is the lack of knowledge of solution efficacy as an increasing number of bulbs are treated. We evaluated the effectiveness (“longevity”) of paclobutrazol (Bonzi) and uniconazole (Sumagic) solutions repeatedly used to dip hybrid lily (Lilium sp.) bulbs. Experiments were conducted over a 2-year period, using sequential 1-minute dips into paclobutrazol (100 or 200 mg·L–1) or uniconazole (2.5 mg·L–1). No difference in plant height occurred as the number of bulbs dipped into PGR solutions increased to at least 55 bulbs per liter. This was true whether bulbs were washed (with tap water to remove soil particles attached to the bulbs) or unwashed prior to the PGR dip. These findings have an important impact on cost effectiveness of bulb dips, as the more times the solution can be used, the lower the cost. Washed bulbs were taller than unwashed bulbs due to lower PGR liquid uptake in washed bulbs (about 1 mL less per bulb) compared to the unwashed bulbs. These results indicate that the hydration condition of bulbs prior to dipping can affect the amount of PGR liquid uptake and therefore final plant height.

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