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  • Author or Editor: Osman Karaguzel x
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The effects of method of application and dose of paclobutrazol on the growth and flowering characteristics of Lupinus varius L. were studied. On 17 Dec., seeds were sown into 18-cm pots (three seeds per pot) filled with a mixture consisting of 2 peat: 1 river sand (by volume). On 25 Mar., when 5% of the plants had elongated first internodes, doses of paclobutrazol at 0 (control), 0.625, 1.250, and 2.500 mg a.i./plant were applied to plants as a foliar spray or media drench. The application of paclobutrazol led to a slight shortening of the time to flowering, especially when applied as a foliar spray. Plant height and internode length, length, and internode length of the main inflorescence significantly decreased with increased doses of paclobutrazol and this also happened with the number of branches per plant, branch length, and length and internode length of branch inflorescence. On the contrary, stem, main, and branch inflorescence diameters significantly increased with increased doses of paclobutrazol, whether applied as a foliar spray or media drench. However, drench applications of paclobutrazol were consistently more effective than foliar spray treatments on most of the growth characteristics investigated. Paclobutrazol, in particular when applied as a foliar spray, also increased the number of flowers on main and branch inflorescences relative to the control, but media drenched applications of paclobutrazol at doses of 1.250 and 2.500 mg a.i./plant resulted in consistent significant reductions in the number of flowers on branch inflorescences. Chemical name used: (±)-(R*,R*)-β[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol (paclobutrazol).

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Turkish cut-flower exports grew from about $100,000 in 1985 to $11 million in 1995 (not adjusted for inflation). Since this is a growing industry in Turkey, we wanted to examine the production structure and main problems of export-oriented contract growers. We surveyed 33 cut-flower export growers and 30 contract growers between May and July 1997. We conducted the survey in the Antalya province, which is the center of the export-oriented cut-flower production in Turkey. The results indicate that cut-flower companies were not highly mechanized, but did use computerized accounting systems. Transportation of cut flowers to foreign markets was the largest expense item in the cut-flower industry. Despite a high rate of unemployment, cut-flower companies face difficulties in obtaining and keeping qualified employees. Managers tended not to use specific performance indicators such as sales per employee or sales per square foot relevant to the cut-flower industry. The most common method for arranging cut-flower export sales was personal contact with the importers. Contracts between firms which grew and exported flowers and smaller contract growers were common, but some problems existed concerning quality and financial obligations. Growers are using fewer commission contracts and are instead opting to sell on a fixed-price basis. The main concerns raised by managers were related to increased competition, price-cutting, transportation expenses for export, training, and labor supply.

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There is a dearth of information about turfgrass drought resistance and adaptation in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Turfgrass managers in this region need this information to help them make informed decisions regarding turfgrass selection and management. This research was conducted to assess the drought resistance of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) under Mediterranean conditions of Turkey. The study was conducted at two locations, Antalya and Mersin, and was repeated in 2006 and 2007 at both locations. One year after establishment, the turfs were subjected to drought stress for 90 days, which was followed by resumption of irrigation for recovery of the turf. Percentage leaf firing, turfgrass quality, and percent green shoot recovery were recorded. There were inter and intraspecies differences detected for percentage leaf firing and shoot recovery. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and buffalograss exhibited superior drought resistance as demonstrated by lower leaf firing and better shoot recovery values when compared with other species studied. Centipedegrass and zoysiagrass demonstrated a high leaf firing and very poor shoot recovery, whereas zoysiagrass and tall fescue were unable to recover from the drought stress in the sandy soil. Results showed that ‘SWI-1045’ (Contessa®) and ‘SWI-1044’ bermudagrass and ‘Cody’ buffalograss possessed superior drought resistance with acceptable turfgrass quality up to 30 days under drought stress that can be used for water-efficient turf management under the Mediterranean environment.

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