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  • Author or Editor: Oscar Rebolledo-Dominguez x
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The responsible substances involved in the phenomenon of compability/incompatibility in Sapotaceae species during two phenological stages were elucidated. An experiment was carried out to determine the compatibility/incompatibility relationship between homografts and heterografts of Sapotaceae species during two phenological stages, and to identify the responsible substances involved in the phenomenon. In order to determine the compatibility/incompatibility between Sapotaceae species, heterograftings were made using the mamey [Calocarpumsapota(Jacq.) Merr.] as scion, and chicozapote [(Achrassapota(L.)] was used as rootstock. Grafting was conducted during the phenological stage of defoliation of the scion donor plant, as well as during budding. Homografts were also made using C. sapota on C. sapota in both phenological stages. Plant tissue samples were obtained from scions and rootstocks in both phenological stages, and they were used for HPLC analysis. Heterografts (C. sapota on A. sapota) showed 100% incompatibility in both stages, and lack of success during grafting was obtained; similar results were registered with the homografts (C. sapota on C. sapota) during the budding stage; however, during the defoliation stage, 80% successful grafting was obtained. The responsible substances involved in the phenomenon of compatibility/incompatibility using samples taken during the grafting day and 60 days after (C. sapota grafted on A. sapota during defoliation stage), were identified as catechin and epicatechin. Catechins are the responsible substances of incompatibility in the heterografts of C. sapota /A. sapotain both phenological stages, as well as during the budding stage in the homografts on C. sapota.

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The susceptibility of third-instar larvae of Anastrepha ludens (Loew) to the entomopathogenic nematodes Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) (All and Tecomán strains), S. feltiae (Filiipjev), S. glaseri (Steiner) (NC strain), S. riobrave (Cabanillas, Poinar & Raulston), and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (NC, Patronato, and Tecomán strains), was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Sterile distilled water (1.0 mL) with 4000 infective juvenile nematodes were applied on 300 g of moistened sterile soil into 1000-mL pots, and 20 third-instar larvae were placed on the soil surface, 1 mL of distilled water without nematodes was applied as control. Each nematode treatment was replicated four times. After nematode application, pots were incubated at 25 °C. Mortality of larvae and pupae was evaluated 6 and 12 d after inoculation. Cadavers of larvae and pupae were dissected and examined for the presence of nematodes. Our results showed that Mexican fruit larvae were susceptible to entomopathogenic nematodes. S. riobrave and S. carpocapsae All strain caused 90% of larval and pupae cumulative mortality, H. bactetiophora NC strain and S. feltiae killed more than 80%, whereas H. bacteriophora Tecomán and S. glaseri caused a 52.5% mortality. These results suggest that the nematodes S. riobrave and S. carpocapsae All strain have a potential as biological control agents against A. ludens.

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