The decline in sales of garden roses can, in part, be attributed to the lack of well-adapted cultivars. Successful selection for any trait requires an accurate phenotyping protocol. Apart from field screening, a protocol for phenotyping high-temperature tolerance in garden roses is yet to be established. An experiment was conducted to determine the stage of development when flowers were most sensitive to high-temperature stress. Liners of Rosa L. ‘Belinda’s Dream (BD) and the Knock Out® rose ‘RADrazz’ (KO) were planted in a soilless medium and grown in a greenhouse. Established plants were pruned retaining several nodes with leaves on two main shoots and treatments started. The experiment was conducted in growth chambers held at either 24/17 °C (control) or 36/28 °C (stress) day/night temperatures. Six time and duration temperature treatments included 8 weeks of continuous control conditions, 8 weeks of continuous stress conditions, and four sequential 2-week high-temperature shock treatments. Continuously stressed plants flowered in the least amount of days but did not differ from the continuous control-treated plants based on nonlinear thermal unit accumulation until flowering. Both cultivars had a 70% reduction in flower dry weight under continuous stress conditions. Flowers were most sensitive to high-temperature stress at the visible bud stage, which corresponds to Weeks 5 to 6 and Weeks 7 to 8 for BD and Weeks 3 to 4 and Weeks 5 to 6 for KO, respectively. KO was more resistant to flower abscission than BD when treated at the visible bud stage, but no difference in flower dry weight reduction between BD and KO was found. The number of vegetative nodes to the flower was unaffected by treatment and differed between the cultivars.
Ockert Greyvenstein, Brent Pemberton, Terri Starman, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne
Ockert Greyvenstein, Terri Starman, Brent Pemberton, Genhua Niu, and David Byrne
The decline of garden rose sales over the past 20 years can be partially attributed to the lack of material adapted to a wide range of landscapes, which includes adaptation to high temperature stress. Current methods for evaluating high temperature susceptibility in garden roses are based on field observations, which are time consuming and subjected to ever-changing environmental conditions. A series of experiments were conducted to optimize protocols and compare the use of chlorophyll fluorescence (CFL) and cell membrane thermostability (MTS) by way of electrolyte leakage as methods to screen for high temperature susceptibility. Immature leaves proved better than mature leaves for both CFL and MTS measurements, using either detached leaf or whole plant stress assays. MTS measured on immature leaves stressed in a water bath at 50 °C for 45 minutes proved most consistent in separating rose clones based on high temperature susceptibility. Stressing actively growing plants with flower buds of 2 mm in diameter in a heat chamber at 44 °C for 3 hours resulted in increased flower abscission and leaf necrotic lesions on more susceptible clones when compared with those that were heat tolerant. Combining MTS measurements from immature leaves stressed in a water bath with the flower abscission and leaf necrosis responses 10 days after stress in a heat chamber could be the first step to screen and select against the more susceptible clones in a garden rose breeding program. Power analyses suggest that the proposed MTS protocol would be efficient in detecting differences between clones when the difference in electrolyte leakage is greater than 10%.
Mary Lewis, Matthew Chappell, Paul A. Thomas, Rebekah C. Maynard, and Ockert Greyvenstein
Milkweed (Asclepias sp.) is an important pollinator genus across North America and is a host plant for many butterfly species, notably the monarch butterfly (Danaus plexippus). Commercial production of Asclepias is limited to a few species, because most species lack commercial traits, with minimal branching habit, excessive height, and minimal color variation. This study used a commercially viable Asclepias species, butterfly weed (Asclepias tuberosa L.), as a maternal parent and trialed three different pollination methods in an attempt to create interspecific hybrids. Pollination methods included a traditional method, a pollen–solution-based method, and a novel inverted pollinia method. The inverted pollinia method increased pollination success rates 4-fold among intraspecific crosses of A. tuberosa. When pollination methods were optimized, A. tuberosa was used as the maternal parent, and one-way crosses were made to seven other Asclepias species using the inverted pollinia method. Of the seven species used as pollen donors, four developed hybrid seed successfully: green milkweed (Asclepias hirtella Woodson), purple milkweed (Asclepias purpurascens L.), showy milkweed (Asclepias speciosa Torr.), and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca L.). As germination methods vary significantly among Asclepias species, three methods of germination were trialed on seed developed via interspecific hybridizations: direct seeded, cold–moist stratification, and embryo rescue. Of the three methods, cold–moist stratification was superior to direct seeding and embryo rescue. This research is the first documented case of a controlled interspecific hybridization event among these species.