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Calvin Chong, R.A. Cline, D.L. Rinker, and O.B. Allen

`Eight deciduous ornamental shrubs-deutzia (Deutzia gracilis Siebold & Zucc.), dogwood (Cornus alba L. `Argenteo-marginata'), forsythia (Forsythia × intermedia Zab. `Lynwood Gold'), ninebark [Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim.], potentilla (Potentilla fruticosa L. `Red Ace'), privet (Ligustrum vulgare L.), rose (Rosa L. `John Frank. lin'), and weigela [Weigela florida (Bunge) A. DC. `Variegata Nana']—were grown in trickle-irrigated containers with 100% bark (control) or with bark and 33%, 67%, and 100% (by volume) of each of three sources of spent mushroom compost (unweathered, weathered, and unweathered compost leached with water). Despite large variation in species growth response to sources and levels of compost, most grew equally well or better in the compost-amended regimes than in 100% bark and were influenced little, or not at all, by initial or prevailing salt levels in the media. Shoot and root dry weight of dogwood, forsythia, ninebark, rose, and weigela (all sources), and shoot dry weight of deutzia and potentilla (weathered source only), increased linearly or curvilinearly with increasing compost levels. The reverse relationship occurred (all sources) in shoot and root dry weight of privet and root dry weight of weigela and potentilla. Leaf nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, and Zn) tended to increase with increasing compost levels, but not all species showed this response with all nutrients. Regardless of compost source or level, all shrubs were of marketable quality when harvested, except privet, which showed leaf chlorosis in all compost-amended regimes.

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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan, J.T.A. Proctor, and O.B. Allen

The influence of genotype x environment interactions on the performance of `Autumn Bliss' `Heritage' and `Redwing' primocane-fruiting (PF) red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars was studied at six sites across Ontario and Quebec during 1989 and 1990. Cultivar × location × year interactions were found for most vegetative and reproductive components analyzed. `Autumn Bliss' had the most consistent performance of the three cultivars in all location/year combinations, while `Redwing' varied greatly between environments. `Heritage' was always the latest-bearing of the three cultivars and failed to achieve its maximum yield potential in many of the northern locations.

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Jean-Pierre Privé, J.A. Sullivan, J.T.A. Proctor, and O.B. Allen

Climatic elements (solar radiation, daylength, water supply, growing degree days (GDD), corn heat units (CHU), soil, and air temperatures) were monitored to determine which elements could account for the variability in yield of primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) cultivars. The climatic elements were classed as either having a major or minor influence on the vegetative and reproductive components, based on the frequency of the significance of the multiple regression coefficients. Soil temperature and water supply had a major influence, while daylength, solar radiation, and aboveground temperature (i.e., air, GDD, or CHU) had a lesser influence on these components. Soil temperature had the largest influence during April and May, while water supply was equally influential at all times during the season. Air temperature and solar radiation had their largest influence during the period of flower initiation and development (i.e., June and July), while daylength was most influential from June to October. Berry count, weight, and yield had the highest frequency of associations among the climatic elements, indicating the complexity of the association between these yield components and climate. Total number of nodes/cane, length of the fruiting section/cane, and the harvest period showed the fewest number of associations. Not all cultivars responded similarly to changes in their yield components. `Autumn Bliss' was less sensitive to climatic variation than either `Heritage' or `Redwing'. When `Redwing' was the anomaly, it was usually related to air or soil temperatures.