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  • Author or Editor: O. S. Smith x
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The National Horticultural Research Institute coordinates many projects designed to boost and improve the use of various fruits and vegetables around Nigeria. To achieve the set goals for fruit processing, projects are undertaken in cooperation with selected laboratories. Based on the depth of work required for transforming research results into patented products, university and industry were involved in a collaborative assignment in sweet orange concentrate research and development. The work covered engineering and product testing, packaging, and sensory experiments in which materials and resources were shared at the participating center. This presentation focuses on guidelines for overcoming the problems associated with collaborative studies in developing countries and suggestions on funding components.

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The sampling method was applied to a data-set generated by RFLP molecular marker analysis, representing 37 Zea maize cultivars. A total of 251 enzyme probe-combinations were used yielding a total of 1,205 scores per genotype. Genetic distance was calculated among all 37 entries from subsets of arbitrary and increasing sample size. Each score entry in the subset was selected at random from all possible scores with replacement following each selection. The variance for genetic distance was calculated among all subsets of equal size for all possible cultivar pairs. The pooled pair variance was plotted and compared to random simulation models. Additional comparisons were made contrasting closely vs. distantly related cultivars.

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Abstract

Three harvest methods and 3 plot sizes for estimating yields in pickling cucumbers (Cucumis sativus L.) were examined. The correlation between dollar values for a simulated once-over harvest and successive harvest were low (r < .16). Correlation between once-over harvest value and fruit number was .84, while correlation between once-over harvest value and mature fruit number was only .36. The correlation of .84 was high enough to warrant use of fruit number as a primary trait in selection for increased value. Use of fruit number as an estimate of yield would eliminate the grading and weighing processes needed to compute value. An efficient plot size for estimating mean differences between lines was 3.6m2.

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Abstract

Autotetraploid cucumbers were induced by soaking diploid seed in solutions of colchicine. Triploids were made by reciprocal crosses between diploids and tetraploids. The fruit yield of the polyploids was approx 1/2 that of diploids. The fertility of the tetraploid plants as measured by viable seed was approx 1/5 that of diploids. The reduced seed yields of tetraploids appeared to be due to reduced no. of functional male gametes and genic factors. Differences in seed yields were measured among tetraploid lines. Tetraploid by diploid crosses were extremely infertile in either direction.

Open Access

Abstract

Plant density had little effect on the number of pistillate flowers on gynoecious inbreds of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.), but increasing density reduced pistillate flowers in 3 of 4 hybrids. The number of staminate flowers/plant on the gynoecious inbreds was small and was unaffected by density. In 2 of the 4 hybrids of gynoecious x monoecious inbreds, increases in staminate flower production were associated with increasing density.

Open Access

Abstract

Variance component estimates were obtained in a North Carolina Design I experiment for several traits in pickling cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) for a simulated once-over mechanical harvest. The reference population was random-mating and derived from 18 inbred lines obtained from several U.S. breeding programs. Environments sampled were the spring and fall of a single year. Data indicated most of the genetic variance was additive for all traits except fruit color. Evidence for relatively large genotype by environment interaction variances were found for number of fruit, length to diameter (L/D) ratio, and fruit firmness. Heritabilities, based on full-sib families grown in 2 replications in each of 2 seasons, for dollar value and number of fruit, were .19 and .17 respectively. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations for number of fruit and dollar value were high indicating selection for increased number of fruit would be effective in increasing crop value.

Open Access

Conventional procedure for producing concentrated orange juice through evaporation often causes thermally induce gelation with difficulties in raising brix to optimum level. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of mixed pectinase treatment on solids extraction, recovery and pulp wash from selected sweet orange fruit cultivars. Enzyme use level, depectinization time were varied and pertinent rheological parameters determined on concentrate samples towards standardising quality control protocols. The enzyme treatment improved juice circulation in the climbing film evaporator and solids content raised to ≥ 60 Brix.

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Nitrogen was applied to mature pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch.) trees annually as a single application at 125 kg·ha-1 N in March or as a split application with 60% (75 kg·ha-1 N) applied in March and the remaining 40% (50 kg·ha-1 N) applied during the first week of October. Nitrogen treatment did not affect yield, and had little effect on the amount of N absorbed. Nitrogen absorption was greater between budbreak and the end of shoot expansion than at other times of the year. Substantial amounts of N were also absorbed between leaf fall and budbreak. Little N was absorbed between the end of shoot expansion and leaf fall, or tree N losses met or exceeded N absorption. Pistillate flowers and fruit accounted for a small portion of the tree's N; ≈0.6% at anthesis and 4% at harvest. The leaves contained ≈25% of the tree's N in May and ≈17% when killed by freezing temperatures in November. Leaves appeared to contribute little to the tree's stored N reserves. Roots ≥1 cm diameter were the largest site of N storage during the winter. Stored N reserves in the perennial parts of the tree averaged 13% of the tree's total N over a three year period. Current year's N absorption was inversely related to the amount of stored N, but was not related to the current or previous year's crop load.

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