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  • Author or Editor: Nobuhito Mitani x
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We evaluated the resistance of 133 grapevine cultivars or selections, including Vitis vinifera and American hybrids, on the basis of lesion number and length to identify sources of resistance to grapevine anthracnose. All germplasms tested in this study showed anthracnose symptoms to some extent, and the distribution of lesion number and diameter was continuous. Most table grape V. vinifera cultivars were highly susceptible, showing many large lesions. However, V. vinifera wine grapes were more resistant with smaller lesions. Some American hybrid grapes such as ‘Ontario’ showed very few and small lesions. There was a significant positive correlation between lesion number and size in American (r = 0.63, P = 0.0041) and Japanese hybrids (r = 0.56, P < 0.001), whereas there was no correlation between these characters in V. vinifera. Japanese tetraploid cultivars were neither highly susceptible nor resistant. High anthracnose susceptibility of most well-known table grape V. vinifera cultivars, including ‘Muscat of Alexandria’, ‘Italia’, ‘Rizamat’, ‘Kattakurgan’, and ‘Thompson Seedless’, indicates that resistance should be introgressed from other cultivars such as American hybrids or wine grapes when these susceptible table grapes or their descendants are used in breeding anthracnose-resistant table grapes.

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Pollination-constant and nonastringent (PCNA) is one of the most desirable traits in persimmons as this type of cultivar loses its astringency while still on the tree before harvest. Among Japanese PCNA cultivars, the trait is qualitatively inherited and recessive to pollination-constant, astringent (PCA), pollination-variant, nonastringent (PVNA), and pollination-variant, astringent (PVA) types. However, in a previous trial, both astringent and nonastringent types segregated in the F1 population that resulted from a cross between a Chinese PCNA `Luo Tian Tian Shi' and a Japanese PCNA cultivar. Because of the unusual segregation, in this study, we crossed another Japanese PCNA `Okugosho' with `Luo Tian Tian Shi' to confirm the segregation of astringent types by measuring the tannin cell size and tannin concentration at harvest. Previously, we found that astringent types have larger tannin cells than PCNA-type. The F1 hybrid progenies from the cross segregated into both PCNA and astringent-type individuals in approximately 1:1 ratio. Likewise, the F1 population from the astringent-type `Yotsumizo' and `Iwasedo' × `Luo Tian Tian Shi' were ascertained to contain both PCNA and astringent types, which indicates that the PCNA trait of `Luo Tian Tian Shi' was dominant. Thus, this Chinese cultivar has the potential to become an important parental material for future breeding of PCNA persimmons.

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Persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb) is hexaploid, and the pollination-constant, non-astringent (PCNA)/non-PCNA trait of Japanese origin is qualitatively controlled by the AST/ast alleles at a single locus and the PCNA trait is recessive to the non-PCNA trait. To avoid inbreeding depression led by repeated crosses among PCNA genotypes, non-PCNA genotypes should be used as cross parents. The marker-assisted selection system has been developed for the selection of PCNA offspring in the progeny derived from the cross of non-PCNA ‘Taigetsu’ (non-PCNA ‘Kurokuma’ × PCNA ‘Taishu’) to PCNA ‘Kanshu’. The primer pairs E8.5/E9r and 7H9F/AST-R were used for detecting the molecular markers A1 and A3, respectively, which link AST alleles. Complete agreement was found between the sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker genotype and fruit astringency phenotype of the 48 offspring. The result confirmed that the marker-assisted selection using those markers was highly practical. In a larger offspring population (522 offspring) from the same cross, offspring segregated into 100 with both markers, 162 with only A1, 179 with A3, and 81 with neither, and this segregation ratio was significantly different from 2:3:3:2, which is the segregation ratio of random chromosome assortment in autohexaploid. The percentage of offspring expected to be PCNA was 15.5% (81 of 522), which was slightly lower than 20%.

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