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  • Author or Editor: Ning Zhang x
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The accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), which is a precursor for ethylene production, in plant roots exposed to salinity stress can be detrimental to plant growth. The objectives of this study were to determine whether inoculating roots with bacteria containing deaminase enzymes that break down ACC (ACC-deaminase) could improve plant tolerance to salinity in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and to examine growth and physiological factors, as well as nutrition status of plants affected by the ACC-deaminase bacteria inoculation under salinity stress. Plants of perennial ryegrass (cv. Pangea) were inoculated with either Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN or Burkholderia gladioli RU1 and irrigated with either fresh water (control) or a 250 mm NaCl solution to induce salinity stress. The bacterium-inoculated plants had less ACC content in shoots and roots under both nonstressed and salinity conditions. Salinity stress inhibited root and shoot growth, but the bacterium-inoculated plants exhibited higher visual turf quality (TQ), tiller number, root biomass, shoot biomass, leaf water content, and photochemical efficiency, as well as lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL) under salinity stress. Plants inoculated with bacteria had lower sodium content and higher potassium to sodium ratios in shoots under salinity stress. Shoot and root nitrogen content and shoot potassium content increased, whereas shoot and root calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminum content all decreased due to bacterial inoculation under salinity treatment. ACC-deaminase bacteria inoculation of roots was effective in improving salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass and could be incorporated into turfgrass maintenance programs in salt-affected soils.

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In the early Spring of 2015 and 2016, weed infestation surveys were conducted in areas of cool-season turfgrass Festuca arundinacea Schreb. at 23 sites within Tianjin municipality in northern China. The weed community within turfgrass areas comprised 37 weed species belonging to 14 families. Perennial weeds accounted for 45.9% of the total community of weed species, whereas annual or biennial weeds accounted for 54.1%. Asteraceae was the dominant family (43.2%), and the percentage of broadleaved weeds was 94.6%. Statistical analyses of the weed dominance index (integrating weed relative height and relative coverage) and relative abundance (integrating weed relative density, frequency, and uniformity) showed that the 10 most common weed species during the early spring were Ixeris polycephala Cass., Taraxacum mongolicum Hand.-Mazz., Inula japonica Thunb., Hemistepta lyrata Bge., Trigonotis pedunclaris (Trev.) Benth., Calystegia hederacea Wall., Lepidium apetalum Willd., Plantago asiatica L., Cirsium segetum Bge., and Ixeris sonchifolia Hance. Ixeris polycephala Cass. and T. mongolicum Hand.-Mazz were the most dominant and harmful weed species. Partial correlation analysis (PACA) indicated that the deterioration rate (percentage of bare soil or coverage of plants other than turfgrass) of the turfgrass area was significantly and positively correlated with the total dominance index [(TDI), an index to evaluate the weed infestation severity)] and that the soil organic matter (SOM) and salinity factors were negatively correlated with the TDI. Factors such as soil nutrient conditions (the contents of N, P, and K and the total N), soil physical properties (density and clay content), soil moisture, soil temperature, and soil pH did not correlate significantly with the TDI. We conclude that the deterioration rate was the most important factor influencing weed infestation in the early spring and that SOM and soil salinity might also be important factors. The results of this study can help turfgrass researchers and managers identify the most harmful weed species and integrate management strategies in areas of cool-season turfgrass F. arundinacea Schreb. during early spring in the Tianjin region, China.

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