The most obvious effects of a low leaf:fruit (LF) ratio [two leaves for one cluster per shoot (LF2)] on grape (Vitis vinifera) berries are suppressed anthocyanin biosynthesis in the berry skin, decreased berry weight and soluble solids concentration, and increased titratable acidity. In this study, proteins isolated from berry skins grown under low and high LF ratio conditions, LF2 and LF12, respectively, were characterized by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. A survey of ≈600 to 700 spots from berry skin yielded 77 proteins with differential expression between LF12 and LF2 treatments. Of these, the 59 proteins that were identified consisted of 47 proteins that were down-regulated and 12 that were up-regulated under LF2 conditions compared with LF12 conditions. Most proteins involved in metabolism, energy, transcription, protein synthesis, binding function, signal transduction, and cell defense were down-regulated in LF2 berries, whereas two important enzymes of anthocyanin biosynthesis, chalcone synthase and dihydroflavonol reductase, were not detected. Only a few proteins (e.g., two heat shock proteins related to protein fate and nutrient reservoir storage protein) were found to be up-regulated in LF2 berries. This suggested that, with the exception of secondary metabolism, many proteomic events may have an effect on anthocyanin synthesis in the skins responding to LF.
Ben-Hong Wu, Ning Niu, Ji-Hu Li, and Shao-Hua Li
Jieshan Cheng, Peige Fan, Zhenchang Liang, Yanqiu Wang, Ning Niu, Weidong Li, and Shaohua Li
In ‘Beijing 24’ peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batch] trees, a series of source leaves with differing levels of end products were created by retaining fruit (“+fruit”), removing fruit (“−fruit”), or reducing the light period. To alter the light period, leaves were covered with a bag made of brown inner paper and outer silver paper, which was then removed at different times the next day. The highest level of end products were obtained by fruit removal, while reducing the light period resulted in a lower level than “+fruit.” Net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and stomatal conductance (g s) decreased, but leaf temperatures (Tleaf) increased, following an increase in end product levels in leaves. After the “−fruit” treatment, reduced Pn was correlated with lower g s, and Tleaf increase was concomitant with decreases in maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΦPSII), and photochemical quenching, and with an increase in nonphotochemical quenching. However, there were no significant differences in chlorophyll fluorescence between “+fruit” and the two treatments reducing the light period. The ΦPSII decreased following an increase in foliar sorbitol level, and it linearly decreased as sucrose and starch increased. Although fruit removal resulted in a significant accumulation of sucrose, sorbitol, and starch in leaves throughout the day, the extractable activities of several important enzymes involved in carbohydrate leaf storage and translocation did not decrease. Therefore, instead of feedback regulation by the accumulation of end products in source leaves, a high Tleaf induced by decreased stomatal aperture may play a key role in regulation of photosynthesis by limiting the photochemical efficiency of the PSII reaction centers under high levels of the end products in peach leaves.