The accumulation of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), which is a precursor for ethylene production, in plant roots exposed to salinity stress can be detrimental to plant growth. The objectives of this study were to determine whether inoculating roots with bacteria containing deaminase enzymes that break down ACC (ACC-deaminase) could improve plant tolerance to salinity in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and to examine growth and physiological factors, as well as nutrition status of plants affected by the ACC-deaminase bacteria inoculation under salinity stress. Plants of perennial ryegrass (cv. Pangea) were inoculated with either Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN or Burkholderia gladioli RU1 and irrigated with either fresh water (control) or a 250 mm NaCl solution to induce salinity stress. The bacterium-inoculated plants had less ACC content in shoots and roots under both nonstressed and salinity conditions. Salinity stress inhibited root and shoot growth, but the bacterium-inoculated plants exhibited higher visual turf quality (TQ), tiller number, root biomass, shoot biomass, leaf water content, and photochemical efficiency, as well as lower cellular electrolyte leakage (EL) under salinity stress. Plants inoculated with bacteria had lower sodium content and higher potassium to sodium ratios in shoots under salinity stress. Shoot and root nitrogen content and shoot potassium content increased, whereas shoot and root calcium, magnesium, iron, and aluminum content all decreased due to bacterial inoculation under salinity treatment. ACC-deaminase bacteria inoculation of roots was effective in improving salinity tolerance of perennial ryegrass and could be incorporated into turfgrass maintenance programs in salt-affected soils.
Liang Cheng, Ning Zhang and Bingru Huang
Keith A. Funnell, Bruce R. MacKay and Ning Huang
Vernalization and growing degree-day requirements of Thalictrum delavayi `Hewitt's Double' were determined to improve the production scheduling of this cut flower crop. Two-year-old crowns of T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double', lifted in the fall, were exposed to cold storage for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 8 ± 1°C. After storage, the containerized plants were grown at Massey Univ., Palmerston North (40°20.S) in a greenhouse heated at 15°C and vented at 20°C, under a natural photoperiod (11 h increasing to 13 h) plus a 4-h night interruption between 2200 and 0200 HR. As buds continued to develop during storage at 8°C, growing degree-days calculations were made over both storage and greenhouse forcing periods. All plants flowered, but T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double' nevertheless showed a quantitative vernalization requirement, being fully saturated after 6 weeks of cold storage at 8°C. With a base temperature of 0°C, time to flowering reduced from 3338 degree-days without vernalization to an average 2804 degree-days subsequent to the saturation of the vernalization response (6 to 15 weeks of vernalization). Flower yield averaged between three and five stems per plant, with stem lengths ranging between 140 and 200 cm. Differences in flower yield and quality among storage durations were minor and not commercially significant.
Ning Huang, Keith A. Funnell and Bruce R. MacKay
Vernalization and growing degree-day (GDD) requirements of Thalictrum delavayi Franch. `Hewitt's Double' were investigated by exposing crowns to cold storage for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, or 15 weeks at 8 °C, and subsequently planting in a heated greenhouse under long-day conditions. Cumulative vernalization of crowns was complete after 6 weeks of cold storage at 8 °C. The time to flower, including time at 8 °C, was 3338 GDD (base temperature of 0 °C) without vernalization and 2802 GDD after complete vernalization. Commercial recommendations for rapid and predictable flowering of T. delavayi `Hewitt's Double' should include cold storage of crowns for a minimum of 6 weeks at 8 °C as part of the 2802 GDD during vernalization and forcing.