Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) growers select cultivars based on a range of performance criteria. Currently, however, information regarding tomato cultivar performance in high tunnels is lacking. We conducted a tomato cultivar trial in an 1800-ft2 plastic-covered high tunnel in Durham, NH, with 15 indeterminate cultivars using organic fertilizers and pesticides. Tomatoes were grown in-ground in a randomized complete block design (n = 4) using raised beds with plastic mulch and drip irrigation. Marketable and unmarketable yield, several yield components, and susceptibility to two common diseases, leaf mold (Fulvia fulva) and powdery mildew (Oidium lycopersici or Leveillula taurica), were evaluated over a 3-year period. Differences between cultivars existed in all areas of interest, and year-to-year variation in performance was noteworthy in this experiment. ‘Geronimo’ consistently had among the highest yields, ‘Arbason’ and ‘Massada’ produced many individual fruit, and several cultivars including Rebelski, Massada, and Geronimo showed no signs of disease. Some cultivars such as Conestoga appeared susceptible to several different physiological disorders while others were relatively robust against this type of marketable yield reduction. Because we assessed multiple yield and quality variables and observed apparent trade-offs in several of these, we used radar plots to summarize and communicate the performance of each cultivar in an intuitive and comparable manner. Based on these data, several tomato cultivars appear particularly well suited for high tunnel production in northern New England.
Nicholas D. Warren, Rebecca G. Sideman and Richard G. Smith
Nicholas D. Warren, Richard G. Smith and Rebecca G. Sideman
Living mulch systems allow cover crops to be grown during periods of cash crop production, thereby extending the duration of cover crop growth and associated beneficial agroecosystem services. However, living mulches may also result in agroecosystem disservices such as reduced cash crop yields if the living mulch competes with the crop for limiting resources. We examined whether the effects of an Italian ryegrass [Lolium multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot]–white clover (Trifolium repens L., cv. New Zealand) living mulch on broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) yield and yield components were dependent on fertilizer rate in field experiments conducted in Durham, NH, in 2011 (Expt. 1) and 2012 (Expt. 2). Drip-irrigated broccoli was grown under a range of organic fertilizer application rates in beds covered with plastic, with and without a living mulch growing in the uncovered, interbed space. Broccoli yields were similar in the living mulch and bare soil controls under the highest rates of fertilizer application in Expt. 1. In Expt. 2, living mulch reduced broccoli yields from 28% to 63%, depending on fertilizer rate. Differences in leaf SPAD values suggest that yield reductions were attributable, in part, to competition for nitrogen; however, other factors likely played a role in determining living mulch effects. Despite yield reductions, the living mulch reduced the prevalence of hollow stem in broccoli in Expt. 1. Organic fertilizer may have inconsistent effects on broccoli yields in living mulch systems.