The increasing number of crops being grown for the floriculture market has frustrated educators faced with limited classroom and laboratory time. Time constraints necessitate selection of crops to serve as examples of floral induction treatment(s) and provide an accurate scope of production requirements for all cultivated species. Since flowers are the primary reason for purchasing most floricultural products—with the notable exception of cut and potted foliage—the various treatments required for flower bud initiation and development were used to categorize potted plants. New and old crops (>70 species) are categorized for flower bud initiation and development requirements, including photoperiod (short, long day, day neutral; facultative/obligate responses), vernalization, temperature, autonomous, rest period, and dormancy. Crop-specific temperature, irradiance, and photoperiod interactions are noted, as well as temperature × photoperiod interactions. A course syllabus can be modified to ensure that at least one crop from each category is presented to serve as a model. It is recommended that the class focuses on example crop(s) from each floral induction category and then reviews other crops within each category for differences or similarities. This method allows coverage of floral induction categories without leaving information gaps in the students' understanding. This method was used with students in the Fall 1999, floriculture production class (Hort 4051) at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul.
Neil O. Anderson
Historic ignorance of species’ native range, expansion due to unintentional involvement by vectors, and their quiet evolution has caused several invasive species to become “poster children,” such as purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea), and others. Common misconceptions on how these became problematic have involved a variety of causes, including ignorance of species’ ability to intercross and create introgressive hybrids, lack of insects for control, wind pollination, and intercontinental distribution from their native range. Current research focuses on how misappropriating the historical contexts can reverse our misconceptions of native species being noninvasive and how this affects control by land managers. Purple loosestrife and reed canarygrass will be used as example species to demonstrate challenges that native vs. exotic, intra-, and interspecific differences confer to land managers. Issues such as a lack of phenotypic differences challenge land managers’ charge to control invasive individuals yet retain the noninvasives. This is fraught with challenges when native vs. exotic status is invoked or cultural values are entwined. To avoid a monumental impasse, particularly when native and exotic types are phenotypically indistinguishable, this dilemma could be solved via modern techniques using molecular biology.
Neil O. Anderson
Seed-propagated lilies have the potential to revolutionize Easter lily production, eliminating clonal disease transmission, costly production and shipping. Five F1 interspecific hybrids, Lilium × formolongo (L. longiflorum × L. formosanum), were evaluated to establish an initial forcing schedule. The hybrids included `Raizan Herald', `Augusta F1', `Raizan No. 1', `Raizan No. 2', and `Raizan No. 3'. Two hundred seeds/hybrid were sown in early July in plug trays. Ten weeks after sowing, seedlings were transplanted into 3-inch pots. At the 20-week stage, the seedlings were repotted into 6-inch standard pots for the final production phase. All hybrids had low germination rates (<20%). Hybrids were grown under two photoperiod treatments (short, long days) at 21 °C with n = 10 reps/hybrid/treatment. Plants were evaluated for no. days to visible bud, leaf unfolding rate, final plant height, leaf number, bud count, flowering dates, and the no. of shoots/bulb. Ten weeks after sowing, hybrids had one to four leaves/plant. At 20 weeks, the leaf number had increased to as many as 40. Despite the lack of a cold treatment, most hybrids initiated flower buds. Visible bud date occurred as early as 20 weeks after sowing. Photoperiod had no effect on leaf number, stem height, and flower bud initiation. Plant height exceeded 15 inches by week 16 in most hybrids, indicating the need for plant growth regulator applications. The next steps in product development for seed-propagated Easter lilies will be outlined.
Neil O. Anderson
In production classes, students often commence the class by learning complicated crop-specific production cycles. Rarely are they afforded the opportunity of spending several class periods to first understand the major differences between commercial crops for production time, labor input, and market share. A cooperative learning exercise was created for the first week of lectures in potted plant production class (Hort 4051) at the Univ. of Minnesota (n = 18 students). Students were assigned to working groups for discussion and synthesis of the assignment. One week later, each group turned in their recommendations and one lecture session was devoted to in-class discussion of their answers. The exercise was in the form of a memo from a commercial company, Floratech, addressed to the students as the newly hired potted plant production specialists. In the memo, a graphical summary was presented of 13 major and minor potted crops, contrasting total production time, labor input, and market share for each crop. As production specialists, the student's primary task was to interact with all staff (other students role-playing various positions within the company) to answer the following question: “What is the most realistic, cost-effective location on the graph that Floratech should aim to move all crops?” Group discussions, both within and outside of class, focused on the noticeable trends depicted by the graph and the limiting factors that prevented crops from moving to the ideal location. Growers and breeders were quizzed on what factors kept each crop in the specific locations on the graph. The majority of student chose the midpoint of the graph as the best location. The exercise successfully peaked student's awareness of crop differences and the limiting production factors. Throughout the semester, students referred back to this graph to pinpoint the location for each crop covered.
Neil O. Anderson
A case study is presented for use as an active learning tool for students in a floriculture potted plant production class. This is the second case study developed for Floratech, a potted plant finisher. Students work together in small groups to solve the proposed problems; each student role-plays as a Potted Plant Production Specialist. A memorandum from the Board of Directors is delivered in their first month on the job at Floratech. Objectives of this case study are to determine the students' fluency in terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for potted plant production of cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum) and primrose (Primula sp.) as well as their ability to setup a scientifically rigorous and unbiased cultivar trial for Floratech personnel and selected customers. Students research the latest commercial catalogs to determine which species, series, and cultivars are available, as well as their relative merits, prior to choosing the appropriate cultivars to include in the trial. The trial setup has a space limitation of 2,000 ft2 (186 m2). This case study was tested with 20 undergraduate students during Fall Semester 1999. The case study demonstrated the students' fluency with terminology and crop-specific cultural requirements for both crops. Their ability to set up a scientifically rigorous trial varied widely, often with an inadequate sampling of cultivars and excessive replications (56 ± 37 cyclamen to 132 ± 65 primrose). A mean ± sd of 4 ± 1 cyclamen and 7 ± 3 primrose series were chosen. The number of cultivars varied from 6 ± 2 cyclamen to 9 ± 4 primrose and the number of distributors was similar for the crops. Trial design and additional questions raised by the case study were discussed in class and applied in a cultivar trial in the lab. Unanswered questions were used as learning opportunities during class tours with local growers.
Neil O. Anderson
This paper presents a case study for use as an active learning tool with students in a floriculture potted plant production class. Students work together in small groups (three to four) to pose answers to a dilemma. With this case study, students quickly learn the names of their colleagues and work together outside-of-class to solve the assignment. Each student role-plays being hired on as a new potted plant production specialist. A memorandum from the Board of Directors is delivered on their first day of work at Floratech, a company specializing in potted plants. Floratech is a finisher company, purchasing plugs (vegetative or seed-propagated crops) from plug producers and rooting stations, and selling their final products to both wholesale and retail markets. Objectives of this case study are to determine 1) the students' fluency in terminology for potted plant production, 2) ideal production time/labor inputs for the Floratech potted crops, and 3) limiting factor(s) preventing each crop from reaching this goal. As the students progress through the course material, they refer to the memorandum for clarification of unknown terms. Unresolved questions are raised during the semester (in the classroom and during laboratory tours) to other players interacting in the memorandum, i.e., Floratech staff (growers, sales people, management), its suppliers (rooting stations, plug producers, distributors, breeders, producers, operations, quality control), and customers (wholesale, retail). This case study was tested with undergraduate students enrolled in HORT 4051, Floriculture Production and Management I (Potted Plants) at the University of Minnesota, St. Paul, during Fall Semester 1999.
Nadilia Gomez* and Neil O. Anderson
Cleome hassleriana is an ornamental garden plant introduced from South America and naturalized in eastern United States with tendencies to reseed primarily in gardens. The objectives of this research were to determine (1) if C. hassleriana cultivars can germinate in Minnesota prairies and roadsides, (2) if germination in cultivated environments reflect germination in non-cultivated environments, and (3) if there are differences among cultivars across environments, with some cultivars germinating well in cultivated habitats and poorly in non-cultivated habitats. In June 2003, 135 seeds from each of four cultivars (Queen Rose, Queen White, Sparkler Rose and Sparkler White) were planted in each of 4 gardens and 8 non-cultivated habitats (4 prairies and 4 roadsides). Germination and survival was recorded once weekly for four weeks. Cleome seeds germinated in Minnesota gardens, prairies and roadsides. By day 14, the proportion of germinated seedlings was significantly greater in gardens (30.5%) than in prairies (1.4%) and roadsides (0.9%). Sparklers had significantly greater germination than Queens in the prairies. The best performing cultivar in the garden (Queen White, 29%) was different than the best performing cultivar in the prairies and roadsides (Sparkler Rose, 1.4% and 1.2% respectively), suggesting that germination in non-cultivated habitats may not reflect germination in the field. Cultivars varied in their ability to germinate in cultivated and non-cultivated environments.
Neil O. Anderson and Esther Gesick
The prostrate plant habit may be an important new trait for the garden chrysanthemum [Dendranthema ×grandiflora Tzvelv. (=Chrysanthemum ×morifolium Ramatuelle)] market. Fifteen prostrate and non-prostrate genotypes were evaluated in production trials, using Regular and Fast Cropping systems. At flowering, the following traits were evaluated: days to flowering (first, 50%, 100%), flowering duration, pot coverage, plant uniformity, and salability. Salability was measured with consumer evaluations. Genotypes differed significantly for days to first and 100% flowering, flowering duration, plant height, plant width, and plant uniformity. Cropping systems were significantly different for days to first and 100% flowering. `Snowscape', a semi-prostrate day-neutral cultivar, was earlier than all other genotypes for days to first flower. It also had the longest flowering duration. `Snowscape' would be the best genetic source for creating early, continual flowering cultivars. Most prostrate genotypes were as early as commercial cultivars. Genotype 90-275-27 was significantly shorter (prostrate) than all other genotypes and would be the best genetic source for prostrate plants. Genotypes 95-169-8, 92-237-9, 95-157-6, 95-169-10, 90-275-27, and `Snowscape' had the most acceptable plant width for shipping. Plant uniformity of 95-169-10 and 95-169-8 matched that of `Debonair' and `Spotlight', all of which were significantly more uniform than the other genotypes. The least uniform prostrate was 95-331-10. `Snowscape' had the highest (best) index of traits ranking and was significantly better than all other genotypes. Consumer evaluations were highest for non-prostrate cultivars.
Neil O. Anderson, Adnan Younis, and Ye Sun
The large genome size of easter lily [Lilium longiflorum (77.1 pg/2C nucleus)], coupled with repetitive DNA sequences, makes it difficult to use molecular techniques to identify or fingerprint lily (Lilium) species, hybrids, and clones. Previous research demonstrated that amplified fragment length polymorphisms could not be optimized for consistency and repeatability to obtain reliable genetic variation assessments of lily species and clones. The objective of this research was to analyze the effectiveness and stringency of intersimple sequence repeats (ISSRs) to determine genetic differences between L. longiflorum ‘Nellie White’ clonal ramet populations from bulb growers over years. DNA from closely related clones of L. longiflorum ‘Nellie White’ included 2002 (n = 11 bulb lots) and 2003 (n = 12 bulb lots). Comparison cultivars and species were also included. Five University of British Columbia (UBC) primers (P808, P810, P811, P814, and P818) that were used produced 56 polymorphic loci. ISSR banding patterns were consistent among three replications within ‘Nellie White’ clonal genotypes. ‘Nellie White’ clones differed significantly within (82%) and among (18%) growers in 2002 and 2003. ‘Nellie White’ clones are not uniform or part of a single ramet population. Principal clades within years separated at Nei's genetic distances (GDs) of GD = 0.6 (growers 2, 4, and 12) to GD = 0.82 (grower 6) in 2002 and GD = 0.51 (grower 4) to GD = 0.78 (grower 14). The most closely related ‘Nellie White’ clones within growers ranged from GD = 0.8 to 0.95 in 2002 and GD = 0.7 to 0.91 for 2003. Five top-performing growers (1, and 3–6) from previous morphological studies and, particularly growers 3 and 5, were in similar clades, cosegregating with phenotypic traits of stem emergence and flowering dates. The lack of a meiotic sieve (Muller's ratchet) may be responsible for the high level of mutational differences present in the ‘Nellie White’ clones and significantly affects the ability of commercial greenhouse growers to produce a uniform easter lily crop, particularly in years when the Easter holiday is early.
Jaser A. Aljaser and Neil O. Anderson
Gladiolus (Gladiolus ×hybridus) is an asexually propagated, herbaceous perennial and an economically important cut flower crop. In commercial production, gladioli have tall flower stalks, which limit their use to cut flowers and annual garden plants. The gladiolus breeding program at the University of Minnesota has bred and selected rapid generation cycling (RGC) cycle 1 gladiolus, which can flower in <1 year from seed instead of the norm of 3 to 5 years (which are vegetatively propagated as corms). Gibberellin inhibitors, such as ancymidol, are used as plant growth retardants to control height in potted plants. Higher concentrations can inhibit flowering along with other negative side effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth, flowering, and corm/cormel production response of cycle 1 gladiolus to the gibberellin inhibitor, ancymidol (0, 100, and 400 mg·L−1 soak) in comparison with noncycle 1 genotypes and commercial cultivars for potted gladiolus production. Cycle 1 genotypes flowered with all ancymidol concentrations while noncycle 1 genotypes had significantly fewer flowers or were completely nonflowering under higher concentrations. All tested genotypes had increased leaf width as ancymidol concentration increased. Conversely, flower stalk heights were shorter as the ancymidol concentration increased while the number of stalks was nonsignificant. Corms, cormel number, and fresh weights decreased in all genotypes except for one cycle 1 genotype, which had an increase in both corm number and fresh weight when treated with 100 mg·L−1 ancymidol. Cycle 1 gladiolus are more resilient to this gibberellin inhibitor even at high concentrations and can potentially be used for gladiolus potted plant production.