The effects of temperature, photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) and photoperiod on vegetative growth and flowering of the raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) `Autumn Bliss' were investigated. Increased temperature resulted in an increased rate of vegetative growth and a greater rate of progress to flowering. Optimum temperatures lay in the low to mid 20°C range. Above this the rate of plant development declined. Increased PPFD also advanced flowering. While photoperiod did not significantly affect the rate of vegetative growth, flowering occurred earliest at intermediate photoperiods and was delayed by extreme photoperiods. These responses suggest that there is potential for adjusting cropping times of raspberry grown under protection by manipulating the environment, especially temperature.
J.G. Carew, K. Mahmood, J. Darby, P. Hadley and N.H. Battey
M.E. Pérez de Camacaro, G.J. Camacaro, P. Hadley, N.H. Battey and J.G. Carew
The differences in growth and yield in the Junebearing strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) `Elsanta' and the everbearing `Bolero' and `Everest' were evaluated under field conditions. The seasonal patterns of radiation use efficiency and assimilate partitioning were also studied. Growth, development and yield showed considerable differences among cultivars. `Elsanta' showed the highest and `Bolero' and `Everest' the lowest values for almost all the vegetative parameters (leaf area, leaf dry weight, runner number). `Elsanta' produced large leaves and few crowns per plant in contrast to the everbearing cultivars which had more but smaller leaves and a larger number of crowns per plant. The production of flowers by `Elsanta' was concentrated in June with fruit production following in July. `Bolero' and `Everest' produced more than one flush of flowers during the season and fruited until October. As a result, yields of `Bolero' and `Everest' were greater than `Elsanta'. The higher yields of `Bolero' and `Everest' also reflected the greater number of crowns produced by these cultivars. The maximum intercepted and absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) occurred between July and August when the three cultivars showed the greatest increase in vegetative growth. Harvest index clearly differed among cultivars and this was related to the duration of cropping. The greatest harvest indexes were found for `Bolero' and `Everest'.