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  • Author or Editor: N. Mutlu x
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Common bacterial blight (CBB) in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), caused by Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (Xcp), reduces bean yields and quality throughout the world. Pinto `Chase' is a high-yielding variety with moderate resistance to Xcp derived from great northern Nebraska #1 selection 27, whose resistance is derived from an unknown tepary (P. acutifolius) bean source. XAN-159 is a black mottled small seeded breeding line with different genes for high resistance to Xcp derived from a different tepary source (PI 319443). Our objective was to pyramid different genes for Xcp resistance from the donor parent XAN-159 into the rust-resistant recurrent parent Pinto `Chase' using the classical back-cross breeding method with confirmation of resistance using RAPD molecular markers. Resistance was confirmed in some BC2F2 generation plants. Seven RAPD markers and the V locus (flower color) previously identified were confirmed in the BC1 and BC2 populations. Smaller seed size, purple flower color, and black mottled seed coat color were coinherited with resistance to Xcp. However, a recombinant plant with enhanced CBB resistance and moderate-sized pinto seed was identified. Backcross breeding is being continued.

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Warm-season turfgrasses are grown throughout the warm humid, sub-humid, and semiarid regions. The objective of this study was to determine the adaptation of six warm-season turfgrass species and several of their cultivars to Mediterranean growing conditions of Turkey by evaluating turfgrass establishment rate, quality, color, and percentage of turfgrass cover. Information of this nature is lacking and would be helpful to turfgrass managers and advisers working in the region. A study was conducted over a 2-year period in two locations of the Mediterranean region of Turkey. The warm-season turfgrass species studied were bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon), buffalograss (Buchloë dactyloides), zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica), bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum), and centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiurioides). Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was included as a cool-season turfgrass species for comparison. Twenty cultivars belonging to these species were evaluated for their establishment, turfgrass color and quality, spring green-up, and fall color retention. Bermudagrass, bahiagrass, and seashore paspalum established 95% or better coverage at 1095 growing degree days [GDD (5 °C base temperature)], buffalograss and centipedegrass at 1436 GDD, and ‘Zenith’ and ‘Companion’ Zoysiagrass had 90% and 84% coverage at Antalya after accumulating 2031 GDD. ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; ‘SWI-1044’, ‘SWI-1045’, ‘Princess 77’, and ‘Riviera’ bermudagrass; ‘Cody’ buffalograss; and ‘Zenith’ zoysiagrass exhibited acceptable turfgrass quality for 7 months throughout the growing season. ‘Argentine’ and ‘Pensacola’ bahiagrass; ‘Sea Spray’ seashore paspalum; and ‘SWI-1044’ and ‘SWI-1045’ bermudagrass extended their growing season by retaining their green color 15 days or longer than the rest of the warm-season cultivars and/or species in the fall. The warm-season species stayed fully dormant throughout January and February. Zoysiagrass and buffalograss cultivars showed early spring green-up compared to the other warm-season species studied. Results from this study support the use of warm-season turfgrass species in this Mediterranean region, especially when heat stress and water limitations exist. Tall fescue did not survive summer heat stress necessitating reseeding in fall.

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